Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 7

Apr 27, 2023

Engineers ‘grow’ atomically thin transistors on top of computer chips

Posted by in categories: particle physics, robotics/AI

Emerging AI applications, like chatbots that generate natural human language, demand denser, more powerful computer chips. But semiconductor chips are traditionally made with bulk materials, which are boxy 3D structures, so stacking multiple layers of transistors to create denser integrations is very difficult.

However, semiconductor transistors made from ultrathin 2D materials, each only about three atoms in thickness, could be stacked up to create more powerful chips. To this end, MIT researchers have now demonstrated a that can effectively and efficiently “grow” layers of 2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials directly on top of a fully fabricated silicon chip to enable denser integrations.

Growing 2D materials directly onto a silicon CMOS wafer has posed a major challenge because the process usually requires temperatures of about 600 degrees Celsius, while silicon transistors and circuits could break down when heated above 400 degrees. Now, the interdisciplinary team of MIT researchers has developed a low-temperature growth process that does not damage the chip. The technology allows 2D semiconductor transistors to be directly integrated on top of standard silicon circuits.

Apr 27, 2023

NIWC Pacific and its partners are building a quantum Navy

Posted by in categories: mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics

For one, classical physics can predict, with simple mathematics, how an object will move and where it will be at any given point in time and space. How objects interact with each other and their environments follow laws we first encounter in high school science textbooks.

What happens in minuscule realms isn’t so easily explained. At the level of atoms and their parts, measuring position and momentum simultaneously yields only probability. Knowing a particle’s exact state is a zero-sum game in which classical notions of determinism don’t apply: the more certain we are about its momentum, the less certain we are about where it will be.

We’re not exactly sure what it will be, either. That particle could be both an electron and a wave of energy, existing in multiple states at once. When we observe it, we force a quantum choice, and the particle collapses from its state of superposition into one of its possible forms.

Apr 27, 2023

Newly observed effect makes atoms transparent to certain frequencies of light

Posted by in category: particle physics

A newly discovered phenomenon dubbed “collectively induced transparency” (CIT) causes groups of atoms to abruptly stop reflecting light at specific frequencies.

CIT was discovered by confining ytterbium atoms inside an —essentially, a tiny box for light—and blasting them with a laser. Although the laser’s light will bounce off the atoms up to a point, as the frequency of the light is adjusted, a transparency window appears in which the light simply passes through the cavity unimpeded.

“We never knew this transparency window existed,” says Caltech’s Andrei Faraon (BS ‘04), William L. Valentine Professor of Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering, and co-corresponding author of a paper on the discovery that was published on April 26 in the journal Nature. “Our research has primarily become a journey to find out why.”

Apr 26, 2023

A Flash of Genius: Taming Electrons With Laser Precision for 1,000,000x Faster Electronics

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics


Physicists measure and control electron release from metals in the attosecond range.

By superimposing two laser fields of different strengths and frequency, the electron emission of metals can be measured and controlled precisely to a few attoseconds. Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), the University of Rostock and the University of Konstanz have shown that this is the case. The findings could lead to new quantum-mechanical insights and enable electronic circuits that are a million times faster than today.

Continue reading “A Flash of Genius: Taming Electrons With Laser Precision for 1,000,000x Faster Electronics” »

Apr 25, 2023

Plastic used in food packaging found in brain two hours after ingestion

Posted by in categories: nanotechnology, neuroscience, particle physics

A study reflects on how these plastic particles can increase the risk of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

We have known for a while that microplastics are in our bloodstreams, making their way into our bodies through daily consumables like milk and meat. The foreign presence of micro and nano-plastic particles (MNPs) in our bodies is dangerous for obvious reasons, and they can potentially reach remote locations and penetrate living cells.

In a scary confirmation of this potentiality, a new study has found that polystyrene, a widely-used plastic found in food packaging, could be detected in the brain just two hours after ingestion.

Apr 25, 2023

Scientists reconstruct full state of a quantum liquid

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

A team of physicists has illuminated certain properties of quantum systems by observing how their fluctuations spread over time. The research offers an intricate understanding of a complex phenomenon that is foundational to quantum computing—a method that can perform certain calculations significantly more efficiently than conventional computing.

“In an era of it’s vital to generate a precise characterization of the systems we are building,” explains Dries Sels, an assistant professor in New York University’s Department of Physics and an author of the paper, which is published in the journal Nature Physics. “This work reconstructs the full state of a quantum liquid, consistent with the predictions of a quantum field theory—similar to those that describe the fundamental particles in our universe.”

Sels adds that the breakthrough offers promise for technological advancement.

Apr 24, 2023

Using laser beams, scientists generate quantum matter with novel, crystal-like properties

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

face_with_colon_three year 2012.

(—Both high-valued diamond and low-prized graphite consist of exactly the same carbon atoms. The subtle but nevertheless important difference between the two materials is the geometrical configuration of their building blocks, with large consequences for their properties. There is no way, any kind of matter could be diamond and graphite at the same time.

However, this limitation does not hold for quantum matter, as a team of the Quantum Many-Body Physics Division of Prof. Immanuel Bloch (Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) was now able to demonstrate in experiments with ultracold quantum gases. Under the influence of laser beams single atoms would arrange to clear geometrical structures (Nature, November 1st, 2012). But in contrast to classical crystals all possible configurations would exist at the same time, similar to the situation of Schrödinger’s cat which is in a superposition state of both “dead” and “alive”. The observation was made after transferring the particles to a highly excited so-called Rydberg-state. “Our experiment demonstrates the potential of Rydberg gases to realise exotic states of matter, thereby laying the basis for quantum simulations of, for example, quantum magnets,” Professor Immanuel Bloch points out.

Apr 24, 2023

Understanding the origin of matter with the CUORE experiment

Posted by in category: particle physics

There is so much that we do not yet know about neutrinos. Neutrinos are very light, chargeless, and elusive particles that are involved in a process called beta decay. Understanding this process may reveal the origin of matter in the universe.

Beta decay is a type of radioactive decay that involves a neutron converting into a proton emitting an electron and an antineutrino. Beta decay is very common—it occurs about a dozen of times per second in, for example, a banana. There might also be an ultra-rare kind of beta decay that emits two electrons but no neutrinos.

Nuclear physicists around the world are searching for this neutrinoless-double (NLDBD) in different nuclei. The interest in these decays arises from their potential to reveal unsolved mysteries related to the universe’s creation of matter. They can also provide hints toward our understanding of the currently unknown mass of neutrinos.

Apr 22, 2023

Simulations with a machine learning model predict a new phase of solid hydrogen

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics, robotics/AI, space

Hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe, is found everywhere from the dust filling most of outer space to the cores of stars to many substances here on Earth. This would be reason enough to study hydrogen, but its individual atoms are also the simplest of any element with just one proton and one electron. For David Ceperley, a professor of physics at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, this makes hydrogen the natural starting point for formulating and testing theories of matter.

Ceperley, also a member of the Illinois Quantum Information Science and Technology Center, uses computer simulations to study how interact and combine to form different phases of matter like solids, liquids, and gases. However, a true understanding of these phenomena requires , and quantum mechanical simulations are costly. To simplify the task, Ceperley and his collaborators developed a machine learning technique that allows quantum mechanical simulations to be performed with an unprecedented number of atoms. They reported in Physical Review Letters that their method found a new kind of high-pressure solid hydrogen that past theory and experiments missed.

“Machine learning turned out to teach us a great deal,” Ceperley said. “We had been seeing signs of new behavior in our previous simulations, but we didn’t trust them because we could only accommodate small numbers of atoms. With our machine learning model, we could take full advantage of the most accurate methods and see what’s really going on.”

Apr 22, 2023

Atom: Topological qubits will be one of the key ingredients in the Microsoft plan to bring a powerful, scalable quantum computing solution to the world

Posted by in categories: computing, mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics

Providing increased resistance to outside interference, topological qubits create a more stable foundation than conventional qubits. This increased stability allows the quantum computer to perform computations that can uncover solutions to some of the world’s toughest problems.

While qubits can be developed in a variety of ways, the topological qubit will be the first of its kind, requiring innovative approaches from design through development. Materials containing the properties needed for this new technology cannot be found in nature—they must be created. Microsoft brought together experts from condensed matter physics, mathematics, and materials science to develop a unique approach producing specialized crystals with the properties needed to make the topological qubit a reality.

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