Archive for the ‘materials’ category

Oct 21, 2019

Polymorphic beams and Nature inspired circuits for optical current

Posted by in categories: materials, particle physics

Laser radiation pressure is a basis of numerous applications in science and technology such as atom cooling, particle manipulation, material processing, etc. This light force for the case of scalar beams is proportional to the intensity-weighted wavevector known as optical current. The ability to design the optical current according to the considered application brings new promising perspectives to exploit the radiation pressure. However, this is a challenging problem because it often requires confinement of the optical current within tight light curves (circuits) and adapting its local value for a particular task. Here, we present a formalism to handle this problem including its experimental demonstration. It consists of a Nature-inspired circuit shaping with independent control of the optical current provided by a new kind of beam referred to as polymorphic beam. This finding is highly relevant to diverse optical technologies and can be easily extended to electron and x-ray coherent beams.

Oct 19, 2019

Surprise Black Hole Discovery Could Explain How They Grew So Enormous in The Early Universe

Posted by in categories: cosmology, materials

In recent years, cosmologists peering back to the very dawn of our Universe have discovered something peculiar. A whole bunch of supermassive black holes — in a time thought way too early for such massive objects to have formed.

Exactly how they got to be so freaking huge so quickly is a heck of a puzzle — but a new surprise discovery might have delivered an answer. The disc of dust and gas around a supermassive black hole is moving in such a way that it’s slurping down material faster than it would normally.

That means it’s gaining mass faster than expected — which in turn could explain what happened in the earliest days of our Universe.

Oct 17, 2019

Researchers Turn Algae Into a Material as Hard as Steel

Posted by in categories: climatology, materials

The material has two major benefits for the climate.

Oct 16, 2019

Indian Architect Has Created An Algae Wall To Purify Polluted Water Without Harmful Chemicals

Posted by in category: materials

Shneel Malik, a Barlett doctoral candidate, has created Indus — a modular wall system that is created to clean water polluted using dyes and chemicals with the help of ceramic tiles and algae. The ceramic tiles used to create this modular wall is layered with microalgae and seaweed-based hydrogel.

Oct 16, 2019

Priority to US198325

Posted by in category: materials

This could lead to euclidean geometry devices.

A system for transmission of information using a curl-free magnetic vector potential radiation field. The system includes current-carrying apparatus for generating a predominantly curl-free magnetic vector potential field coupled to apparatus for modulating the current applied to the field generating apparatus. Receiving apparatus includes a detector with observable properties that vary with the application of an applied curl-free magnetic vector potential field. Analyzing apparatus for determining the information content of modulation imposed on the curl-free vector potential field is coupled to the detector. The magnetic vector potential field can be established in materials that are not capable of transmitting more common electromagnetic radiation.

Oct 15, 2019

Plastics that are Stronger than Steel

Posted by in categories: materials, nanotechnology

Image Credits: Thinkstock

Materials scientists are constantly working on developing stronger and better materials for various industries. Spider silk, diamond, graphene, and nanotubes have all been proved to be stronger than steel in one respect or another. Now, certain types of plastics join this list.

The following article looks at three research findings in the field of plastics.

Oct 14, 2019

New design strategy can help improve layered superconducting materials

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, materials

Scientists from Tokyo Metropolitan University have created a new layered superconducting material with a conducting layer made of bismuth, silver, tin, sulfur and selenium. The conducting layer features four distinct sublayers; by introducing more elements, they were able to achieve unparalleled customizability and a higher “critical temperature” below which superconductivity is observed, a key objective of superconductor research. Their design strategy may be applied to engineer new and improved superconducting materials.

Once an academic curiosity, superconductors are now at the cutting edge of real technological innovations. Superconducting magnets are seen in everyday MRI machines, for , not to mention the new Chuo Shinkansen maglev train connecting Tokyo to Nagoya currently being built. Recently, a whole new class of “layered” superconducting structures have been studied, consisting of alternate layers of superconducting and insulating two-dimensional crystalline layers. In particular, the customizability of the system has garnered particular interest in light of its potential to create ultra-efficient thermoelectric devices and a whole new class of “high temperature” superconducting materials.

A team led by Associate Professor Yoshikazu Mizuguchi from Tokyo Metropolitan University recently created a sulfide based layered superconductor; their work has already revealed novel thermoelectric properties and an elevated “critical temperature” below which superconductivity is observed. Now, working with a team from the University of Yamanashi, they have taken a multi-layered version of the system, where the conducting layer consists of four , and begun swapping out small proportions of different atomic species to probe how the material changes.

Oct 9, 2019

Nanoscale manipulation of light leads to exciting new advancement

Posted by in categories: materials, nanotechnology

Controlling the interactions between light and matter has been a long-standing ambition for scientists seeking to develop and advance numerous technologies that are fundamental to society. With the boom of nanotechnology in recent years, the nanoscale manipulation of light has become both, a promising pathway to continue this advancement, as well as a unique challenge due to new behaviors that appear when the dimensions of structures become comparable to the wavelength of light.

Scientists in the Theoretical Nanophotonics Group at The University of New Mexico’s Department of Physics and Astronomy have made an exciting new advancement to this end, in a pioneering research effort titled “Analysis of the Limits of the Near-Field Produced by Nanoparticle Arrays,” published recently in the journal, ACS Nano, a top journal in the field of nanotechnology. The group, led by Assistant Professor Alejandro Manjavacas, studied how the optical response of periodic arrays of metallic nanostructures can be manipulated to produce in their vicinity.

The arrays they studied are composed of silver nanoparticles, tiny spheres of silver that are hundreds of times smaller than the thickness of a human hair, placed in a repeating pattern, though their results apply to nanostructures made of other materials as well. Because of the between each of the nanospheres, these systems can be used for different applications, ranging from vivid, high-resolution color printing to biosensing that could revolutionize healthcare.

Oct 9, 2019

Light 10 Billion Times Brighter Than the Sun Illuminates 2,000-Year-Old Herculaneum Scrolls

Posted by in categories: materials, neuroscience

Researchers led by the renowned ancient artifacts decoder, Professor Brent Seales, will be using Diamond, the UK’s national synchrotron science facility in the heart of Oxfordshire, to examine a collection of world-famous ancient artifacts owned by the Institut de France. Using this powerful light source and special techniques the team has developed, the researchers are working to virtually unwrap two complete scrolls and four fragments from the damaged Herculaneum scrolls. After decades of effort, Seales thinks the scans from Diamond represent his team’s best chance yet to reveal the elusive contents of these 2,000-year-old papyri.

Prof Seales is director of the Digital Restoration Initiative at the University of Kentucky (US), a research program dedicated to the development of software tools that enable the recovery of fragile, unreadable texts. According to Seales, Diamond Light Source is an absolutely crucial element in our long-term plan to reveal the writing from damaged materials, as it offers unparalleled brightness and control for the images we can create, plus access to a brain trust of scientists who understand our challenges and are eager to help us succeed.?Texts from the ancient world are rare and precious, and they simply cannot be revealed through any other known process. Thanks to the opportunity to study the scrolls at Diamond Light Source, which has been made possible by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Andrew Mellon Foundation, we are poised to take a tremendous step forward in our ability to read and visualize this material.

Oct 8, 2019

Hemp Batteries Are Even More Powerful Than Lithium and Graphene, New Study Shows

Posted by in category: materials

Hemp is a wonder crop. It’s an incredibly versatile plant that can be used for a huge range of purposes.

Page 1 of 8412345678Last