Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 9

Aug 15, 2022

Unexpected quantum effects in natural double-layer graphene

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

An international research team led by the University of Göttingen has detected novel quantum effects in high-precision studies of natural double-layer graphene and has interpreted them together with the University of Texas at Dallas using their theoretical work. This research provides new insights into the interaction of the charge carriers and the different phases, and contributes to the understanding of the processes involved. The LMU in Munich and the National Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba, Japan, were also involved in the research. The results were published in Nature.

The novel material , a wafer-thin layer of carbon atoms, was first discovered by a British research team in 2004. Among other unusual properties, graphene is known for its extraordinarily . If two individual graphene layers are twisted at a very specific angle to each other, the system even becomes superconducting (i.e. conducts electricity without any resistance) and exhibits other exciting such as magnetism. However, the production of such twisted graphene double-layers has so far required increased technical effort.

This novel study used the naturally occurring form of double-layer graphene, where no complex fabrication is required. In a first step, the sample is isolated from a piece of graphite in the laboratory using a simple adhesive tape. To observe quantum mechanical effects, the Göttingen team then applied a high perpendicular to the sample: the electronic structure of the system changes and a strong accumulation of charge carriers with similar energy occurs.

Aug 15, 2022

Specially oriented twisted bilayer graphene hosts topological electronic states

Posted by in categories: materials, particle physics

A sheet of magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene can host novel topological phases of matter, a study has revealed.

Magic-angle twisted , first discovered in 2018, is made from two sheets of graphene (a form of carbon consisting of a single layer of atoms in a honeycomb-like lattice pattern), layered atop one another, with one sheet twisted at precisely 1.05 degrees with respect to the other. The resulting bilayer has unusual electronic properties: for example, it can be made into an insulator or a superconductor depending on how many electrons are added.

The discovery launched a new field of research into magic-angle twisted graphene, known as “twistronics.” At Caltech, Stevan Nadj-Perge, assistant professor of applied physics and , has been among the researchers leading the charge: in 2019, he and his colleagues directly imaged the electronic properties of magic-angle twisted graphene at atomic-length scales; and in 2020, they demonstrated that superconductivity in twisted can exist away from the magic angle when coupled to a two-dimensional semiconductor.

Aug 15, 2022

‘Magic’ angle graphene and the creation of unexpected topological quantum states

Posted by in categories: mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics

Electrons inhabit a strange and topsy-turvy world. These infinitesimally small particles have never ceased to amaze and mystify despite the more than a century that scientists have studied them. Now, in an even more amazing twist, physicists have discovered that, under certain conditions, interacting electrons can create what are called ‘topological quantum states.’ This finding, which was recently published in the journal Nature, has implications for many technological fields of study, especially information technology.

Topological states of matter are particularly intriguing classes of quantum phenomena. Their study combines quantum physics with topology, which is the branch of theoretical mathematics that studies geometric properties that can be deformed but not intrinsically changed. Topological quantum states first came to the public’s attention in 2016 when three scientists—Princeton’s Duncan Haldane, who is Princeton’s Thomas D. Jones Professor of Mathematical Physics and Sherman Fairchild University Professor of Physics, together with David Thouless and Michael Kosterlitz—were awarded the Nobel Prize for their work in uncovering the role of topology in electronic materials.

“The last decade has seen quite a lot of excitement about new topological quantum states of electrons,” said Ali Yazdani, the Class of 1909 Professor of Physics at Princeton and the senior author of the study. “Most of what we have uncovered in the last decade has been focused on how electrons get these topological properties, without thinking about them interacting with one another.”

Aug 15, 2022

Particle Physicists Puzzle Over a New Duality

Posted by in categories: mathematics, particle physics

A hidden link between two seemingly unrelated particle collision outcomes shows a mysterious web of mathematical connections between disparate theories.

Aug 14, 2022

A step towards quantum gravity

Posted by in categories: information science, particle physics, quantum physics

In Einstein’s theory of general relativity, gravity arises when a massive object distorts the fabric of spacetime the way a ball sinks into a piece of stretched cloth. Solving Einstein’s equations by using quantities that apply across all space and time coordinates could enable physicists to eventually find their “white whale”: a quantum theory of gravity.

In a new article in The European Physical Journal H 0, Donald Salisbury from Austin College in Sherman, USA, explains how Peter Bergmann and Arthur Komar first proposed a way to get one step closer to this goal by using Hamilton-Jacobi techniques. These arose in the study of particle motion in order to obtain the complete set of solutions from a single function of particle position and constants of the motion.

Three of the four —strong, weak, and electromagnetic—hold under both the ordinary world of our everyday experience, modeled by , and the spooky world of quantum physics. Problems arise, though, when trying to apply to the fourth force, gravity, to the quantum world. In the 1960s and 1970s, Peter Bergmann of Syracuse University, New York and his associates recognized that in order to someday reconcile Einstein’s of with the quantum world, they needed to find quantities for determining events in space and time that applied across all frames of reference. They succeeded in doing this by using the Hamilton-Jacobi techniques.

Aug 13, 2022

An artificial neuron that can receive and release dopamine

Posted by in categories: chemistry, nanotechnology, particle physics, robotics/AI

A team of researchers from Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications and the Chinese Academy of Sciences in China and Nanyang Technological University and the Agency for Science Technology and Research in Singapore developed an artificial neuron that is able to communicate using the neurotransmitter dopamine. They published their creation and expected uses for it in the journal Nature Electronics.

As the researchers note, most machine-brain interfaces rely on as a communications medium, and those signals are generally one-way. Electrical signals generated by the brain are read and interpreted; signals are not sent to the brain. In this new effort, the researchers have taken a step toward making a that can communicate in both directions, and it is not based on electrical signals. Instead, it is chemically mediated.

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Aug 13, 2022

Quantum computer made of 6 super-sized atoms could imitate the brain

Posted by in categories: information science, particle physics, quantum physics, robotics/AI

Simulations of a quantum computer made of six rubidium atoms suggest it could run a simple brain-inspired algorithm that can learn to remember and make simple decisions.

Aug 13, 2022

A simple way of sculpting matter into complex shapes

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

A new method for shaping matter into complex shapes, with the use of ‘twisted’ light, has been demonstrated in research at the University of Strathclyde.

When are cooled to temperatures close to absolute zero (−273 degrees C), they stop behaving like particles and start to behave like waves.

Atoms in this condition, which are known as Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs), are useful for purposes such as realization of atom lasers, slow light, quantum simulations for understanding the complex behavior of materials like superconductors and superfluids, and the precision measurement technique of atom interferometry.

Aug 12, 2022

Nuclear fusion breakthrough confirmed: California team achieved ignition

Posted by in categories: nuclear energy, particle physics

If we could harness fusion to generate electricity, it would be one of the most efficient and least polluting sources of energy possible.

A major breakthrough in nuclear fusion has been confirmed a year after it was achieved at a laboratory in California.

Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL’s) National Ignition Facility (NIF) recorded the first case of ignition on August 8, 2021, the results of which have now been published in three peer-reviewed papers.

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Aug 11, 2022

World’s Fastest 2-Qubit Gate: Breakthrough for the Realization of Ultrafast Quantum Computers

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

A research team succeeded in executing the world’s fastest two-qubit gate (a fundamental arithmetic element essential for quantum computing) using a completely new method of manipulating, with an ultrafast laser, micrometer-spaced atoms cooled to absolute zero temperature. For the past two decade.

“ data-gt-translate-attributes=’[{“attribute”:” data-cmtooltip”, “format”:” html”}]’quantum computing ) using a completely new method of manipulating, with an ultrafast laser, micrometer-spaced atoms cooled to absolute zero.

Absolute zero is the theoretical lowest temperature on the thermodynamic temperature scale. At this temperature, all atoms of an object are at rest and the object does not emit or absorb energy. The internationally agreed-upon value for this temperature is −273.15 °C (−459.67 °F; 0.00 K).

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