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Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 6

Sep 2, 2021

New ‘vortex beams’ of atoms and molecules are the first of their kind

Posted by in category: particle physics

Twisted beams of atoms and molecules join other types of corkscrew beams made of light or electrons.

Sep 1, 2021

The Smallest Engine in the World Is Literally an Ion

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Circa 2019


An international team of physicists have created what they’re calling the world’s smallest engine. How small is it? The entire engine is a single calcium ion, making it around 10 billion times smaller than a car engine.

The experimental engine was conceived by an international team led by Professor Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler and Ulrich Poschinger of Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany. The engine is electrically charged, which makes it easy to trap using electric fields. The moving parts of the engine are the ion’s “intrinsic spin.” On an atomic level, spin is a measurement of an atom’s angular momentum.

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Sep 1, 2021

New Electronic Material: Engineers Create Double Layer of Borophene for First Time

Posted by in categories: materials, particle physics

New material maintains borophene ’s electronic properties, offers new advantages.

For the first time, Northwestern University engineers have created a double layer of atomically flat borophene, a feat that defies the natural tendency of boron to form non-planar clusters beyond the single-atomic-layer limit.

Although known for its promising electronic properties, borophene — a single-atom.

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Aug 31, 2021

Scientists discover quantum mechanical switching in ferritin structures similar to those found in neural tissue

Posted by in categories: biological, neuroscience, particle physics, quantum physics

Quantum mechanics generally refers to the wave-like properties of things that are commonly considered to be particles, such as electrons. This article discusses evidence of a quantum mechanical switching function that is performed by strictly biological structures—ferritin protein layers that are found in cells including neural tissue.

Many scientists are investigating quantum biology, which is the application of quantum mechanics to investigate biological functions. It has recently been used to answer a number of previously unanswered questions, such as the mechanisms behind photosynthesis and the way birds can perceive magnetic fields. These quantum biological effects generally involve electrons hopping or tunneling over distances of several nanometers, behavior that is incompatible with particles but which makes sense with waves.

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Aug 30, 2021

Metallic Nanostructures for Generating Exotic Forms of Light

Posted by in categories: nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum physics

LSU Quantum researchers rearrange photon distribution to create different light sources.

For decades, scholars have believed that the quantum statistical properties of bosons are preserved in plasmonic systems, and therefore will not create different form of light.

This rapidly growing field of research focuses on quantum properties of light and its interaction with matter at the nanoscale level. Stimulated by experimental work in the possibility of preserving nonclassical correlations in light-matter interactions mediated by scattering of photons and plasmons, it has been assumed that similar dynamics underlie the conservation of the quantum fluctuations that define the nature of light sources. The possibility of using nanoscale system to create exotic forms of light could pave the way for next-generation quantum devices. It could also constitute a novel platform for exploring novel quantum phenomena.

Aug 30, 2021

Ultrafast Electron Microscopy Leads to Pivotal Discovery for the Development of New Quantum Devices

Posted by in categories: nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum physics

Ultrafast electron microscope in Argonne’s Center for Nanoscale Materials. Credit: Argonne National Laboratory.

Ultrafast electron microscope opens up new avenues for the development of sensors and quantum devices.

Everyone who has ever been to the Grand Canyon can relate to having strong feelings from being close to one of nature’s edges. Similarly, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have discovered that nanoparticles of gold act unusually when close to the edge of a one-atom.

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Aug 29, 2021

Experimental Confirmation of the Fundamental Principle of Wave-Particle Duality

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Complementarity relation of wave-particle duality is analyzed quantitatively with entangled photons as path detectors.

The twenty-first century has undoubtedly been the era of quantum science. Quantum mechanics was born in the early twentieth century and has been used to develop unprecedented technologies which include quantum information, quantum communication, quantum metrology, quantum imaging, and quantum sensing. However, in quantum science, there are still unresolved and even inapprehensible issues like wave-particle duality and complementarity, superposition of wave functions, wave function collapse after quantum measurement, wave function entanglement of the composite wave function, etc.

To test the fundamental principle of wave-particle duality and complementarity quantitatively, a quantum composite system that can be controlled by experimental parameters is needed. So far, there have been several theoretical proposals after Neils Bohr introduced the concept of “complementarity” in 1,928 but only a few ideas have been tested experimentally, with them detecting interference patterns with low visibility. Thus, the concept of complementarity and wave-particle duality still remains elusive and has not been fully confirmed experimentally yet.

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Aug 29, 2021

Scientists Detected Gravitational Waves That May Stem From a ‘Cloud of Dark Matter Particles’

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

Physicists may have just detected a cloud of dark matter particles! It could also be primordial black holes, but either would be a major breakthrough.

Aug 29, 2021

A New Map of All the Particles and Forces

Posted by in category: particle physics

We’ve created a new way to explore the fundamental constituents of the universe.

Aug 25, 2021

New method greatly improves X-ray nanotomography resolution

Posted by in categories: computing, information science, neuroscience, particle physics

It’s been a truth for a long time: if you want to study the movement and behavior of single atoms, electron microscopy can give you what X-rays can’t. X-rays are good at penetrating into samples—they allow you to see what happens inside batteries as they charge and discharge, for example—but historically they have not been able to spatially image with the same precision electrons can.

But scientists are working to improve the image resolution of X-ray techniques. One such method is X-ray tomography, which enables non-invasive imaging of the inside of materials. If you want to map the intricacies of a microcircuit, for example, or trace the neurons in a brain without destroying the material you are looking at, you need X-ray tomography, and the better the resolution, the smaller the phenomena you can trace with the X-ray beam.

To that end, a group of scientists led by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has created a new method for improving the resolution of hard X-ray nanotomography. (Nanotomography is X-ray imaging on the scale of nanometers. For comparison, an average human hair is 100,000 nanometers wide.) The team constructed a high-resolution X-ray microscope using the powerful X-ray beams of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and created new computer algorithms to compensate for issues encountered at tiny scales. Using this method, the team achieved a resolution below 10 nanometers.

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