Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 6

Jun 18, 2021

Researchers Manipulate Antimatter With Laser for the First Time

Posted by in categories: futurism, particle physics

For the first time, scientists from the ALPHA collaboration at CERN reported successfully manipulating antimatter with the use of a laser system — potentially changing antimatter research and guide future experiments on the field.

Antimatter basically refers to the opposite of matter. Specifically, antimatter has sub-atomic particles whose properties (such as electric charge) are the opposite of normal matter. Most of the challenges surrounding the detection and observation of antimatter come from the fact that it immediately “annihilates” when it comes into contact with normal matter.

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Jun 18, 2021

Light cages could give quantum-information networks a boost

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

A new on-chip device that is very good at mediating interactions between light and atoms in a vapour has been developed by researchers in Germany and the UK. Flavie Davidson-Marquis at Humboldt University of Berlin and colleagues call their device a “quantum-optically integrated light cage” and say that it could be used for wide range of applications in quantum information technology.

Hybrid quantum photonics is a rapidly growing area of research that integrates different optical systems within miniaturized devices. One area of interest is the creation of devices for the control, storage and retrieval of the quantum states of light using individual atoms. This is usually done by integrating on-chip photonic devices with miniaturized cells containing warm vapours of alkali atoms. However, this approach faces challenges due to inefficient vapour filling times, high losses of quantum information near cell surfaces and limited overlaps between the wavelengths of light used in optical circuits and the wavelengths of atomic transitions.

Jun 17, 2021

Correlated charge noise and relaxation errors in superconducting qubits

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Cosmic-ray particles and γ-rays striking superconducting circuits can generate qubit errors that are spatially correlated across several millimetres, hampering current error-correction approaches.

Jun 16, 2021

CRISPR Test Uses Cell Phone Camera to Detect SARS-CoV-2

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, particle physics

Circa 2020

Researchers at UC Berkeley have developed a rapid test for SARS-CoV-2 that uses an enzyme to cleave viral RNA, initiating a fluorescent signal that can be detected using a smartphone camera, and which can provide a quantitative measurement of the level of viral particles in the sample. The test produce a result in as little as 30 minutes and does not require bulky or expensive laboratory equipment.

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Jun 13, 2021

New quantum entanglement verification method cuts through the noise

Posted by in categories: computing, information science, particle physics, quantum physics

“Conditional witnessing” technique makes many-body entangled states easier to measure.

Quantum error correction – a crucial ingredient in bringing quantum computers into the mainstream – relies on sharing entanglement between many particles at once. Thanks to researchers in the UK, Spain and Germany, measuring those entangled states just got a lot easier. The new measurement procedure, which the researchers term “conditional witnessing”, is more robust to noise than previous techniques and minimizes the number of measurements required, making it a valuable method for testing imperfect real-life quantum systems.

Quantum computers run their algorithms on quantum bits, or qubits. These physical two-level quantum systems play an analogous role to classical bits, except that instead of being restricted to just “0” or “1” states, a single qubit can be in any combination of the two. This extra information capacity, combined with the ability to manipulate quantum entanglement between qubits (thus allowing multiple calculations to be performed simultaneously), is a key advantage of quantum computers.

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Jun 13, 2021

Electrons dual nature appears in a quantum spin liquid

Posted by in categories: mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics

Physics World

Quantum mechanics describes this frustration by suggesting that the orientation of the spins is not rigid. Instead, it constantly changes direction in a fluid-like way to produce an entangled ensemble of spin-ups and spin-downs. Thanks to this behaviour, a spin liquid will remain in a liquid state even at temperatures near absolute zero, where most materials usually freeze solid.

The holon and the spinon

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Jun 13, 2021

Physicists prove the existence of two-dimensional particles called anyons

Posted by in category: particle physics

This year, physicists gave us an early view of a third kingdom of quasiparticles that only arise in two dimensions.

The rest of the particles in the universe are bosons, a group that includes particles like photons (the messengers of light and radiation) and gluons (which “glue” quarks together). Unlike fermions, two or more bosons can exist in the same state at the same time.

This article appeared in Discover’s annual state of science issue as Anyons Join the Particle Party.

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Jun 13, 2021

Egyptian stone predates the Sun

Posted by in categories: particle physics, space

This Stone Predates the Sun.

Recent analysis of a stone found in the Libyan Desert Glass area of southwest Egypt, has sparked debate and a rethink of the current consensus on the formation of the solar system.

In a study, due to be published next month, a team of international researchers announced the resulting analysis of a stone that was subsequently named Hypatia after the ancient female astronomer of Alexandria.

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Jun 13, 2021

Exotic quantum state could make smallest-ever laser

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

When particles are cooled down to temperatures just above absolute zero, they form a BEC – a state of matter in which all the particles occupy the same quantum state and thus act in unison, like a superfluid. A BEC made up of tens of thousands of particles therefore behaves as if it were just one single giant quantum particle.

An international team of researchers led by Carlos Anton-Solanas and Christian Schneider from the University of Oldenburg, Germany; Sven Höfling of the University of Würzburg, Germany; Sefaattin Tongay at Arizona State University, US; and Alexey Kavokin of Westlake University in China, has now generated a BEC from quasiparticles known as exciton-polaritons in atomically thin crystals. These quasiparticles form when excited electrons in solids couple strongly with photons.

“Devices that can control these novel light-matter states hold the promise of a technological leap in comparison with current electronic circuits,” explains Anton-Solanas, who is in the quantum materials group at Oldenburg’s Institute of Physics. “Such optoelectronic circuits, which operate using light instead of electric current, could be better and faster at processing information than today’s processors.”

Jun 12, 2021

Nano Optics Breakthrough: Researchers Observe Sound-Light Pulses in 2D Materials for the First Time

Posted by in categories: computing, engineering, particle physics, quantum physics

Using an ultrafast transmission electron microscope, researchers from the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology have, for the first time, recorded the propagation of combined sound and light waves in atomically thin materials.

The experiments were performed in the Robert and Ruth Magid Electron Beam Quantum Dynamics Laboratory headed by Professor Ido Kaminer, of the Andrew and Erna Viterbi Faculty of Electrical & Computer Engineering and the Solid State Institute.

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