Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 3

Jul 12, 2021

Higher-Energy Composite Fermion Levels in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

😀 2011

Trevor D. Rhone, Dwipesh Majumder, Brian S. Dennis, Cyrus Hirjibehedin, Irene Dujovne, Javier G. Groshaus, Yann Gallais, Jainendra K. Jain, Sudhansu S. Mandal, Aron Pinczuk, Loren Pfeiffer, and Ken West. 2011. “Higher-Energy Composite Fermion Levels in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect.” Phys. Rev. Lett., 106, Pp. 096803.

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Jul 12, 2021

A Massless Particle Which Could Revolutionize Electronics

Posted by in categories: computing, information science, particle physics, quantum physics

In 2015, after 85 years of searching, researchers confirmed the existence of a massless particle called the Weyl fermion. With the unique ability to behave as both matter and anti-matter inside a crystal, this quasiparticle is like an electron with no mass. The story begun in 1928 when Dirac proposed an equation for the foundational unification of quantum mechanics and special relativity in describing the nature of the electron. This new equation suggested three distinct forms of relativistic particles: the Dirac, the Majorana, and the Weyl fermions. And recently, an analog of Weyl fermions has been discovered in certain electronic materials exhibiting a strong spin orbit coupling and topological behavior. Just as Dirac fermions emerge as signatures of topological insulators, in certain types of semimetals, electrons can behave like Weyl fermions.

These Weyl fermions are what can be called quasiparticles, which means they can only exist in a solid such as a crystal, and not as standalone particles. However, as complex as quasiparticles sound, their behavior is actually much simpler than that of fundamental particles, because their properties allow them to shrug off the same forces that knock their counterparts around. This discovery of Weyl fermions is huge, not just because there is finally a proof that these elusive particles exist, but because it paves the way for far more efficient electronics, and new types of quantum computing. Weyl fermions could be used to solve the traffic jams with electrons in electronics. In fact, Weyl electrons can carry charges at least 1000 times faster than electrons in ordinary semiconductors, and twice as fast as inside graphene. This could lead to a whole new type of electronics called ‘Weyltronics’.

Jul 12, 2021

For The First Time, Scientists Have Connected a Superconductor to a Semiconductor

Posted by in categories: mobile phones, particle physics, quantum physics

Scientists have succeeded in combining two exciting material types together for the very first time: an ultrathin semiconductor just a single atom thick; and a superconductor, capable of conducting electricity with zero resistance.

Both these materials have unusual and fascinating properties, and by putting them together through a delicate lab fabrication process, the team behind the research is hoping to open up all kinds of new applications in classical and quantum physics.

Semiconductors are key to the electrical gadgets that dominate our lives, from TVs to phones. What makes them so useful as opposed to regular metals is their electrical conductivity can be adjusted by applying a voltage to them (among other methods), making it easy to switch a current flow on and off.

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Jul 11, 2021

Researchers Discover Orbital Patterns of Trans-Neptunian Objects Vary Based on Their Color

Posted by in categories: chemistry, evolution, particle physics, space

Data collected can be used to provide new insights into the evolution of the Kuiper Belt, and the larger solar system.

Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), small objects that orbit the sun beyond Neptune, are fossils from the early days of the solar system which can tell us a lot about its formation and evolution.

A new study led by Mohamad Ali-Dib, a research scientist at the NYU Abu Dhabi Center for Astro, Particle, and Planetary Physics, reports the significant discovery that two groups of TNOs with different surface colors also have very different orbital patterns. This new information can be compared to models of the solar system to provide fresh insights into its early chemistry. Additionally, this discovery paves the way for further understanding of the formation of the Kuiper Belt itself, an area beyond Neptune comprised of icy objects, that is also the source of some comets.

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Jul 11, 2021

Recycling Lost Energy: Quantum Laser Turns Energy Loss Into Gain?

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics, sustainability

A new laser that generates quantum particles can recycle lost energy for highly efficient, low threshold laser applications.

Scientists at KAIST have fabricated a laser system that generates highly interactive quantum particles at room temperature. Their findings, published in the journal Nature Photonics, could lead to a single microcavity laser system that requires lower threshold energy as its energy loss increases.

The system, developed by KAIST physicist Yong-Hoon Cho and colleagues, involves shining light through a single hexagonal-shaped microcavity treated with a loss-modulated silicon nitride substrate. The system design leads to the generation of a polariton laser at room temperature, which is exciting because this usually requires cryogenic temperatures.

Jul 11, 2021

Muon g-2 Experiment Results – Profound Implications for the History of the Universe

Posted by in categories: particle physics, space

Experiment opens up field for new physics, say Fermilab, UChicago scientists.

The news that muons have a little extra wiggle in their step sent word buzzing around the world this spring.

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Jul 11, 2021

Giant Quantum Tornados in Hybrid Light-Matter System Reveal Complex Physical Phenomena

Posted by in categories: climatology, particle physics, quantum physics

Researchers from Skoltech and their colleagues from the UK have managed to create a stable giant vortex in interacting polariton condensates, addressing a known challenge in quantized fluid dynamics. The findings open possibilities in creating uniquely structured coherent light sources and exploring many-body physics under unique extreme conditions. The paper was published in the journal Nature Communications.

In fluid dynamics, a vortex is a region where a fluid revolves around a point (2D) or a line (3D); you’ve clearly seen one in your sink or may have felt one in the form of turbulence while flying. The quantum world also has vortices: the flow of a quantum fluid can create a zone where the particles revolve persistently around some point. The prototypical signature of such quantum vortices is their singular phase at the core of the vortex.

Skoltech Professors Natalia Berloff and Pavlos Lagoudakis and colleagues studied vortices created by polaritons – odd hybrid quantum particles that are half-light (photon) and half-matter (electrons) – forming a quantum fluid under the right conditions. They were looking for a way to create vortices in these polariton fluids with high values of angular momentum (i.e., getting them to rotate fast). These vortices, also known as giant vortices, are generally very hard to obtain as they tend to break apart into many smaller vortices with low angular momentum in other systems.

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Jul 10, 2021

Subatomic Particle Seen Changing to Antiparticle and Back for the First Time in Extraordinary Experiment

Posted by in category: particle physics

A team of physicists, including the University of Warwick, have proved that a subatomic particle can switch into its antiparticle alter-ego and back again, in a new discovery just revealed last week.

“This new result shows for the first time that charm mesons can oscillate between the two states.”

An extraordinarily precise measurement made by UK researchers using the LHCb experiment at CERN has provided the first evidence that charm mesons can change into their antiparticle and back again.

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Jul 10, 2021

Radiation from high-speed particles

Posted by in category: particle physics

Circa 1960 o,.o!!!

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Jul 9, 2021

Harvard-MIT Quantum Computing Breakthrough – “We Are Entering a Completely New Part of the Quantum World”

Posted by in categories: finance, particle physics, quantum physics, supercomputing

Team develops simulator with 256 qubits, largest of its kind ever created.

A team of physicists from the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms and other universities has developed a special type of quantum computer known as a programmable quantum simulator capable of operating with 256 quantum bits, or “qubits.”

The system marks a major step toward building large-scale quantum machines that could be used to shed light on a host of complex quantum processes and eventually help bring about real-world breakthroughs in material science, communication technologies, finance, and many other fields, overcoming research hurdles that are beyond the capabilities of even the fastest supercomputers today. Qubits are the fundamental building blocks on which quantum computers run and the source of their massive processing power.

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