Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 2

Oct 2, 2021

A kagome lattice superconductor reveals a ‘cascade’ of quantum electron states

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Researchers have discovered a complex landscape of electronic states that can co-exist on a kagome lattice, resembling those in high-temperature superconductors, a team of Boston College physicists reports in an advance electronic publication of the journal Nature.

The focus of the study was a bulk single crystal of a topological kagome metal, known as CsV3Sb5—a metal that becomes superconducting below 2.5 degrees Kelvin, or minus 455 degrees Fahrenheit. The exotic material is built from atomic planes composed of Vanadium atoms arranged on a so-called kagome lattice—described as a pattern of interlaced triangles and hexagons—stacked on top of one another, with Cesium and Antimony spacer layers between the kagome planes.

The material offers a window into how the physical properties of quantum solids—such as light transmission, electrical conduction, or response to a —relate to the underlying geometry of the atomic lattice structure. Because its geometry causes destructive interference and “frustrates” the kinetic motion of traversing electrons, kagome lattice materials are prized for offering the unique and fertile ground for the study of quantum electronic states described as frustrated, correlated and topological.

Oct 1, 2021

Researchers Develop a New Way To Control Magnets

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics

Reversible system can flip the magnetic orientation of particles with a small voltage; could lead to faster data storage and smaller sensors.

Most of the magnets we encounter daily are made of “ferromagnetic” materials. The north-south magnetic axes of most atoms in these materials are lined up in the same direction, so their collective force is strong enough to produce significant attraction. These materials form the basis for most of the data storage devices in today’s high-tech world.

Less common are magnets based on ferrimagnetic materials, with an “i.” In these, some of the atoms are aligned in one direction, but others are aligned in precisely the opposite way. As a result, the overall magnetic field they produce depends on the balance between the two types — if there are more atoms pointed one way than the other, that difference produces a net magnetic field in that direction.

Sep 30, 2021

Emily Levesque Public Lecture: The Weirdest Stars in the Universe

Posted by in categories: information science, particle physics

In her March 7 public lecture at Perimeter Institute, Emily Levesque discusses the history of stellar astronomy, present-day observing techniques and exciting new discoveries, and explores some of the most puzzling and bizarre objects being studied by astronomers today.

Perimeter Institute (charitable registration number 88,981 4323 RR0001) is the world’s largest independent research hub devoted to theoretical physics, created to foster breakthroughs in the fundamental understanding of our universe, from the smallest particles to the entire cosmos. The Perimeter Institute Public Lecture Series is made possible in part by the support of donors like you. Be part of the equation:

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Sep 29, 2021

Dark matter detector may have accidentally detected dark energy instead

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

Last year, physicists reported that an experimental dark matter detector picked up a strange signal that could hint at new physics, with several suspects highlighted. Now, Cambridge scientists have proposed an answer that wasn’t considered at the time – the experiment may have picked up the first direct detection of dark energy, the mysterious force that’s accelerating the expansion of the universe.

Although it’s thought to outnumber regular matter five to one, dark matter remains elusive. It doesn’t interact with light and seems to mostly make itself known through gravitational influence on cosmic scales, like stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters. But once in a while, a dark matter particle might bump into a regular matter particle in a way that we could detect, with the right equipment.

XENON1T was one version of that equipment. Running in Italy between 2016 and 2,018 the experiment was essentially a big tank full of liquid xenon, kept deep underground. The idea was that if a dark matter particle zipped through the tank, it would excite the xenon atoms to produce a flash of light and free electrons, which a suite of sensors can detect.

Sep 27, 2021

Twice the charm: long-lived exotic particle discovered

Posted by in category: particle physics

Today, the LHCb experiment at CERN is presenting a new discovery at the European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics (EPS-HEP). The new particle discovered by LHCb, labelled as Tcc+, is a tetraquark – an exotic hadron containing two quarks and two antiquarks. It is the longest-lived exotic matter particle ever discovered, and the first to contain two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks.

A tetraquark composed of two charm quarks and an up and a down antiquark (Image: D. Dominguez/CERN)

Quarks are the fundamental building blocks from which matter is constructed. They combine to form hadrons, namely baryons, such as the proton and the neutron, which consist of three quarks, and mesons, which are formed as quark-antiquark pairs. In recent years a number of so-called exotic hadrons – particles with four or five quarks, instead of the conventional two or three — have been found. Today’s discovery is of a particularly unique exotic hadron, an exotic exotic hadron if you like.

Sep 27, 2021

Quantum Heat Engines with Singular Interactions

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

By harnessing quantum phenomena, quantum devices have the potential to outperform their classical counterparts. Here, we examine using wave function symmetry as a resource to enhance the performance of a quantum Otto engine. Previous work has shown that a bosonic working medium can yield better performance than a fermionic medium. We expand upon this work by incorporating a singular interaction that allows the effective symmetry to be tuned between the bosonic and fermionic limits. In this framework, the particles can be treated as anyons subject to Haldane’s generalized exclusion statistics. Solving the dynamics analytically using the framework of “statistical anyons”, we explore the interplay between interparticle interactions and wave function symmetry on engine performance.

Sep 26, 2021

Quantum mechanics of the ground state of four identical fermions

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Basically this was found out in the 1980s and this allows for teleportation in real life 😳 😅 🙃

Wave functions for four identical spin‐one‐half fermions with total spin 0 1, and 2 are constructed. Lower bounds on the ground state energies of these spin states are derived. The results are illustrated with an.

Sep 26, 2021

Magnetic monopoles in spin ice

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Circa 2008

A theoretical study proposes that magnetic monopoles may appear not as elementary but as emergent particles in complex, strongly-correlated magnetic systems such as spin ice, in analogy to fractional electric charges in quantum Hall systems. This theory explains a mysterious phase transition in spin ice that has been observed experimentally.

Sep 26, 2021

Life-like cells are made of metal

Posted by in categories: biological, evolution, particle physics

Circa 2011 o,.o Foglet bodies around the corner sooner than we think 🤔

Could living things that evolved from metals be clunking about somewhere in the universe? Perhaps. In a lab in Glasgow, UK, one man is intent on proving that metal-based life is possible.

He has managed to build cell-like bubbles from giant metal-containing molecules and has given them some life-like properties. He now hopes to induce them to evolve into fully inorganic self-replicating entities.

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Sep 25, 2021

Researchers Have Found A New Way To Control Magnets

Posted by in categories: computing, nanotechnology, particle physics

Researchers at MIT have developed a way of quickly changing the magnetic polarity of a ferrimagnet 180 degrees, using just a small applied voltage. According to the researchers, the discovery could herald a new era of ferrimagnetic logic and data storage systems.

The findings were published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology in a paper co-authored by postdoctoral researcher Mantao Huang, MIT professor of materials science and technology Geoffrey Beach, and professor of nuclear science and technology Bilge Yildiz, as well as 15 other researchers from MIT and other institutions in Minnesota, Germany, Spain, and Korea.

The majority of magnets we come across are of “ferromagnetic” materials. The atoms in these materials are oriented in the same direction with their north-south magnet axes; thus, their combined strength is strong enough to create attraction. As a result, these materials are often used in the modern high-tech environment.

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