Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 2

Jul 8, 2022

The world’s most sensitive dark matter detector just shared its results

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

The LUX-ZEPLIN detector searched for elusive WIMP particles for 60 days on its first scientific run. Did it detect dark matter?

Jul 8, 2022

Record-setting quantum entanglement connects two atoms across 20 miles

Posted by in categories: internet, particle physics, quantum physics

Researchers in Germany have demonstrated quantum entanglement of two atoms separated by 33 km (20.5 miles) of fiber optics. This is a record distance for this kind of communication and marks a breakthrough towards a fast and secure quantum internet.

Quantum entanglement is the uncanny phenomenon where two particles can become so inextricably linked that examining one can tell you about the state of the other. Stranger still, changing something about one particle will instantly alter its partner, no matter how far apart they are. That leads to the unsettling implication that information is being “teleported” faster than the speed of light, an idea that was too much for even Einstein, who famously described it as “spooky action at a distance.”

Despite its apparent impossibility, quantum entanglement has been consistently demonstrated in experiments for decades, with scientists taking advantage of its bizarre nature to quickly transmit data over long distances. And in the new study, researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (LMU) and Saarland University have now broken a distance record for quantum entanglement between two atoms over fiber optics.

Jul 8, 2022

Cern physicists find evidence of three new ‘exotic’ particles

Posted by in category: particle physics

‘The more analyses we perform, the more kinds of exotic hadrons we find’

In the last two years, researchers have discovered a tetraquark made up of two charm quarks and two charm antiquarks, and two “open-charm” tetraquarks consisting of a charm antiquark, an up quark, a down quark and a strange antiquark.

“The more analyses we perform, the more kinds of exotic hadrons we find. We’re witnessing a period of discovery similar to the 1950s, when a ‘particle zoo’ of hadrons started being discovered and ultimately led to the quark model of conventional hadrons in the 1960s. We’re creating ‘particle zoo 2.0,” LHCb physics coordinator Niels Tuning said in a statement.

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Jul 8, 2022

Researchers achieve record entanglement of quantum memories

Posted by in categories: cybercrime/malcode, particle physics, quantum physics

A network in which data transmission is perfectly secure against hacking? If physicists have their way, this will become reality one day with the help of the quantum mechanical phenomenon known as entanglement. For entangled particles, the rule is: If you measure the state of one of the particles, then you automatically know the state of the other. It makes no difference how far away the entangled particles are from each other. This is an ideal state of affairs for transmitting information over long distances in a way that renders eavesdropping impossible.

A team led by physicists Prof. Harald Weinfurter from LMU and Prof. Christoph Becher from Saarland University have now coupled two atomic over a 33-kilometer-long fiber optic connection. This is the longest distance so far that anyone has ever managed entanglement via a telecom fiber.

The quantum mechanical entanglement is mediated via photons emitted by the two quantum memories. A decisive step was the researchers’ shifting of the wavelength of the emitted light particles to a value that is used for conventional telecommunications. “By doing this, we were able to significantly reduce the loss of photons and create entangled quantum memories even over long distances of fiber optic cable,” says Weinfurter.

Jul 7, 2022

Good news, universe! Scientists are one step closer to finally understanding dark matter

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

Dark matter is made up of axions, elementary particles that are full of suspense.

About 85 percent of our universe is believed to be composed of dark matter, a hypothetical material that does not interact with light. So it neither reflects nor emits nor absorbs any light rays, and therefore, we can not see this unusual form of the matter directly. However, to understand and explain the nature of dark matter, scientists have created various models.

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Jul 6, 2022

Why does inside of solar system not spin faster? Old mystery has possible new solution

Posted by in categories: evolution, particle physics, space

The motion of a tiny number of charged particles may solve a longstanding mystery about thin gas disks rotating around young stars, according to a new study from Caltech.

These features, called , last tens of millions of years and are an early phase of solar system evolution. They contain a small fraction of the mass of the star around which they swirl; imagine a Saturn-like ring as big as the solar system. They are called accretion disks because the gas in these disks spirals slowly inward toward the star.

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Jul 6, 2022

Scientists invent ‘quantum flute’ that can make particles of light move together

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

University of Chicago physicists have invented a “quantum flute” that, like the Pied Piper, can coerce particles of light to move together in a way that’s never been seen before.

Described in two studies published in Physical Review Letters and Nature Physics, the breakthrough could point the way towards realizing or new forms of error correction in quantum computers, and observing quantum phenomena that cannot be seen in nature.

Assoc. Prof. David Schuster’s lab works on —the quantum equivalent of a computer bit—which tap the strange properties of particles at the atomic and sub-atomic level to do things that are otherwise impossible. In this experiment, they were working with particles of light, known as photons, in the microwave spectrum.

Jul 6, 2022

The Spooky Quantum Phenomenon You’ve Never Heard Of

Posted by in categories: computing, information science, particle physics, quantum physics

But Cabello and others are interested in investigating a lesser-known but equally magical aspect of quantum mechanics: contextuality. Contextuality says that properties of particles, such as their position or polarization, exist only within the context of a measurement. Instead of thinking of particles’ properties as having fixed values, consider them more like words in language, whose meanings can change depending on the context: “Time flies like an arrow. Fruit flies like bananas.”

Although contextuality has lived in nonlocality’s shadow for over 50 years, quantum physicists now consider it more of a hallmark feature of quantum systems than nonlocality is. A single particle, for instance, is a quantum system “in which you cannot even think about nonlocality,” since the particle is only in one location, said Bárbara Amaral, a physicist at the University of São Paulo in Brazil. “So [contextuality] is more general in some sense, and I think this is important to really understand the power of quantum systems and to go deeper into why quantum theory is the way it is.”

Researchers have also found tantalizing links between contextuality and problems that quantum computers can efficiently solve that ordinary computers cannot; investigating these links could help guide researchers in developing new quantum computing approaches and algorithms.

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Jul 6, 2022

Novel quantum simulation method clarifies correlated properties of complex material 1T —TaS2

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

A team led by Philipp Werner, professor of physics at the University of Fribourg and leader of NCCR MARVEL’s Phase 3 project Continued Support, Advanced Simulation Methods, has applied their advanced quantum simulation method to the investigation of the complex material 1T-TaS2. The research, recently published in Physical Review Letters, helped resolve a conflict between earlier experimental and theoretical results, showing that the surface region of 1T-TaS2 exhibits a nontrivial interplay between band insulating and Mott insulating behavior when the material is cooled to below 180 k.

1T-TaS2 is a layered transition metal dichalcogenide that has been studied intensively for decades because of intriguing links between temperature dependent distortions in the lattice and phenomena linked to electronic correlations.

Upon cooling, the material undergoes a series of lattice rearrangements with a simultaneous redistribution of the electronic density, a phenomenon known as charge density wave (CDW) order. In the reached when the material is cooled to below 180 k, an in-plane periodic lattice distortion leads to the formation of star-of-David (SOD) clusters made of 13 tantalum atoms. Simultaneously, a strong increase in resistivity is observed. Additional interesting properties of the low temperature phase include a transition to a under pressure as well as the possibility to switch this phase into long-lived metallic metastable phases by applying short pulses of laser or voltage, making the material potentially interesting for use in future memory devices.

Jul 6, 2022

Scientists baffled by magnetic material that freezes when heated up

Posted by in categories: materials, particle physics

Physicists have discovered that certain magnetic material freezes when the temperature rises to a certain point. We’ve typically only seen this behavior when we cool down magnetic materials, not when we heat them up. As such, it has left physicists scratching their heads and baffled by the development.

Physicists Alexander Khajetoorians of Radboud University in the Netherlands says that the freezing of the magnetic materials is the opposite of what we normally see. The result is “counterintuitive, like water that becomes an ice cube when it’s heated up,” according to Khajetoorians.

Normally, ferromagnetic materials like iron feature aligned spins. This means that the magnetic spins of the atoms are all spinning in the same direction. Essentially, the south and north magnetic poles are all aligned in the same direction. Some alloys made of both iron and copper, though, feature randomized spins. Physicists refer to this state as spin glass.

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