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Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 5

Feb 21, 2020

Solving a Higgs optimization problem with quantum annealing for machine learning

Posted by in categories: information science, particle physics, quantum physics, robotics/AI

A machine learning algorithm implemented on a quantum annealer—a D-Wave machine with 1,098 superconducting qubits—is used to identify Higgs-boson decays from background standard-model processes.

Feb 21, 2020

Quantum Physicists “Hold” Individual Atoms in Place for First Time

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Molecule Rules

The team even managed to observe two of three atoms collide to form a molecule — a process that has never been observed on this scale before. They were surprised at how long it took compared to previous experiments and calculations.

“By working at this molecular level, we now know more about how atoms collide and react with one another,” lead author and postdoc researcher Marvin Weyland said in a statement. “With development, this technique could provide a way to build and control single molecules of particular chemicals.”

Feb 21, 2020

Radical hydrogen-boron reactor leapfrogs current nuclear fusion tech

Posted by in categories: nuclear energy, particle physics

“We are sidestepping all of the scientific challenges that have held fusion energy back for more than half a century,” says the director of an Australian company that claims its hydrogen-boron fusion technology is already working a billion times better than expected.

HB11 Energy is a spin-out company that originated at the University of New South Wales, and it announced today a swag of patents through Japan, China and the USA protecting its unique approach to fusion energy generation.

Fusion, of course, is the long-awaited clean, safe theoretical solution to humanity’s energy needs. It’s how the Sun itself makes the vast amounts of energy that have powered life on our planet up until now. Where nuclear fission – the splitting of atoms to release energy – has proven incredibly powerful but insanely destructive when things go wrong, fusion promises reliable, safe, low cost, green energy generation with no chance of radioactive meltdown.

Feb 20, 2020

Top Dark Matter Candidate Loses Ground to Tiniest Competitor

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

Physicists have long searched for hypothesized dark matter particles called WIMPs. Now, focus may be shifting to the axion — an ultra-lightweight particle whose existence would solve two mysteries at once.

Feb 20, 2020

Four things you might not know about dark matter

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

How much do you really know about dark matter? Symmetry looks at one of the biggest remaining mysteries in particle physics.

Feb 18, 2020

The Fastest Spinning Object Ever Could Detect the Elusive Vacuum Friction

Posted by in category: particle physics

Scientists at Purdue University have made the fastest spinning object ever, a tiny ball of silicon dioxide that rotates 300 billion times per second. They positioned the microscopic silica balls in a vacuum and blasted them with two different lasers that induce the spin.

In 2018, scientists at the Institute for Photonics at ETH Zurich (a small, elite science university) created the first billion-RPM object and said they hoped it would accelerate, so to speak, the discovery of wild and unpredictable things. And that has certainly borne out, because the Purdue team has shown that even in a near vacuum, the spinning silica particles create measurable friction.

Feb 18, 2020

We cannot predict with any precision where technology will lead us

Posted by in categories: government, military, particle physics, privacy, robotics/AI, terrorism

Superb piece.

“But, I say we should pursue science and technology because, like Prometheus, the fires of invention burn bright, and although we may not always know where it leads us, a world darkened by the fear of treading upon the unknown, is unimaginable.”

Continue reading “We cannot predict with any precision where technology will lead us” »

Feb 18, 2020

Quantum superposition of molecules beyond 25 kDa

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Matter-wave interference experiments provide a direct confirmation of the quantum superposition principle, a hallmark of quantum theory, and thereby constrain possible modifications to quantum mechanics1. By increasing the mass of the interfering particles and the macroscopicity of the superposition2, more stringent bounds can be placed on modified quantum theories such as objective collapse models3. Here, we report interference of a molecular library of functionalized oligoporphyrins4 with masses beyond 25,000 Da and consisting of up to 2,000 atoms, by far the heaviest objects shown to exhibit matter-wave interference to date. We demonstrate quantum superposition of these massive particles by measuring interference fringes in a new 2-m-long Talbot–Lau interferometer that permits access to a wide range of particle masses with a large variety of internal states. The molecules in our study have de Broglie wavelengths down to 53 fm, five orders of magnitude smaller than the diameter of the molecules themselves. Our results show excellent agreement with quantum theory and cannot be explained classically. The interference fringes reach more than 90% of the expected visibility and the resulting macroscopicity value of 14.1 represents an order of magnitude increase over previous experiments2.

Feb 13, 2020

Exploring the quantum world inside atoms

Posted by in categories: nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum physics

Andreas heinrich director of the IBS center for quantum nanoscience and distinguished professor at ewha womans university

Feb 13, 2020

Quantum memories entangled over 50-kilometer cable

Posted by in categories: internet, particle physics, quantum physics, security

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China has succeeded in sending entangled quantum memories over a 50-kilometer coiled fiber cable. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes several experiments they conducted involving entangling quantum memory over long distances, the challenges they overcame, and problems still to be addressed.

Over the past several years, scientists have been working toward the development of a quantum internet—one very much the same as the present-day network, but with much stronger security. One such approach is based on the development of quantum keys that would allow parties to a private conversation to know that an interloper is eavesdropping, because doing so would change the state of the keys. But in such systems, measurements of the quantum state of the keys is required, which can be impacted by , making the approach nearly impractical.

Another approach involves using entangled particles to form a network—but this has proven to be difficult to implement because of the sensitivity of such particles and their short lifespan. But progress is being made. In this new effort, the researchers in China succeeded in entangling between buildings 20 kilometers apart and across 50 kilometers of coiled cable in their lab.

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