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Archive for the ‘neuroscience’ category: Page 7

Jul 8, 2021

Mapping phenotypic and aetiological associations between ADHD and physical conditions in adulthood in Sweden: a genetically informed register study

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, health, neuroscience

This mapping of aetiological sources of cross-disorder overlap can guide future research aiming to identify specific mechanisms contributing to risk of physical conditions in people with ADHD, which could ultimately inform preventive and lifestyle intervention efforts. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing the presence of physical conditions in patients with ADHD.

Swedish Research Council; Swedish Brain Foundation; Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life, and Welfare; Stockholm County Council; StratNeuro; EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme; National Institute of Mental Health.

Jul 8, 2021

Neurons Unexpectedly Encode Information in the Timing of Their Firing

Posted by in category: neuroscience

A temporal pattern of activity observed in human brains for the first time may explain how we can learn so quickly.

Jul 7, 2021

Rejuvenating Mouse Brains With Ketamine or Flickering Light

Posted by in categories: life extension, neuroscience

Possibilities.


Summary: Ketamine and exposure to 60-hertz flickering light show promise as a potentially new, non-invasive therapy to help rejuvenate the aging brain.

Source: IST Austria

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Jul 7, 2021

Microscopy technique makes finer images of deeper tissue, more quickly

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

To create high-resolution, 3D images of tissues such as the brain, researchers often use two-photon microscopy, which involves aiming a high-intensity laser at the specimen to induce fluorescence excitation. However, scanning deep within the brain can be difficult because light scatters off of tissues as it goes deeper, making images blurry.

Two-photon imaging is also time-consuming, as it usually requires scanning individual pixels one at a time. A team of MIT and Harvard University researchers has now developed a modified version of two-photon imaging that can image deeper within tissue and perform the imaging much more quickly than what was previously possible.

This kind of imaging could allow scientists to more rapidly obtain high-resolution of structures such as vessels and individual neurons within the brain, the researchers say.

Jul 7, 2021

Researchers record brainwaves to measure ‘cybersickness’

Posted by in categories: neuroscience, virtual reality

If a virtual world has ever left you feeling nauseous or disorientated, you’re familiar with cybersickness, and you’re hardly alone. The intensity of virtual reality (VR)—whether that’s standing on the edge of a waterfall in Yosemite or engaging in tank combat with your friends—creates a stomach-churning challenge for 30–80% of users.

In a first-of-its kind study, researchers at the University of Maryland recorded VR users’ using electroencephalography (EEG) to better understand and work toward solutions to prevent cybersickness. The research was conducted by Eric Krokos, who received his Ph.D. in computer science in 2018, and Amitabh Varshney, a professor of and dean of UMD’s College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences.

Their study, “Quantifying VR cybersickness using EEG,” was recently published in the journal Virtual Reality.

Jul 5, 2021

Scientists discover plant ‘brain’ controlling seed development

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Circa 2017


A new study by scientists at the University of Birmingham has revealed a group of cells that function as a ‘brain’ for plant embryos, capable of assessing environmental conditions and dictating when seeds will germinate.

A plant’s decision about when to germinate is one of the most important it will make during its life. Too soon, and the plant may be damaged by harsh winter conditions; too late, and it may be out-competed by other, more precocious plants.

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Jul 3, 2021

‘Time Cells’ Identified in Our Brains Encode The Flow of Time, Scientists Say

Posted by in category: neuroscience

How does the human brain keep track of the order of events in a sequence?

New research suggests that ‘time cells’ – neurons in the hippocampus thought to represent temporal information – could be the glue that sticks our memories together in the right sequence so that we can properly recall the correct order in which things happened.

Evidence for these kinds of sequence-tracking time cells was previously found in rats, where specific neuron assemblies are thought to support the recollection of events and the planning of action sequences – but less is known about how episodic memory is encoded in the human brain.

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Jul 3, 2021

Cannabinoid Pathway Linked to Psychiatric Disorders

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

“Cannabis may contribute to increased risk for mental disorders, which has actually been shown in schizophrenia,” Penzes said. “Conversely, cannabis could be beneficial in some brain disorders, which prompted trials of medical marijuana in patients with autism.”


Summary: Findings reveal a role the endocannabinoid system plays in a range of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and ASD.

Source: Northwestern University

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Jul 3, 2021

A noninvasive technique for neurological conditions

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Indiana University School of Medicine researchers are developing a new, noninvasive brain stimulation technique to treat neurological disorders, including pain, traumatic brain injury (TBI), epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and more.

“Given the increasing use of stimulation in human brain study and treatment of neurological diseases, this research can make a big impact on physicians and their patients,” said Xiaoming Jin, Ph.D., associate professor of anatomy, cell biology and physiology.

When someone experiences a , nerve injury, or neurodegeneration, such as in epilepsy and TBI, there is damage to the brain which can lead to loss and damage of nerve or neurons and development of hyperexcitability that underlies some neurological disorders such as neuropathic pain and epilepsy.

Jul 2, 2021

Stem cell-based biological tooth repair and regeneration

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Stem cells for teeth repair.


Teeth exhibit limited repair in response to damage, and dental pulp stem cells probably provide a source of cells to replace those damaged and to facilitate repair. Stem cells in other parts of the tooth, such as the periodontal ligament and growing roots, play more dynamic roles in tooth function and development. Dental stem cells can be obtained with ease, making them an attractive source of autologous stem cells for use in restoring vital pulp tissue removed because of infection, in regeneration of periodontal ligament lost in periodontal disease, and for generation of complete or partial tooth structures to form biological implants. As dental stem cells share properties with mesenchymal stem cells, there is also considerable interest in their wider potential to treat disorders involving mesenchymal (or indeed non-mesenchymal) cell derivatives, such as in Parkinson’s disease.

Teeth are complex organs containing two separate specialized hard tissues, dentine and enamel, which form an integrated attachment complex with bone via a specialized (periodontal) ligament. Embryologically, teeth are ectodermal organs that form from sequential reciprocal interactions between oral epithelial cells (ectoderm) and cranial neural crest derived mesenchymal cells. The epithelial cells give rise to enamel forming ameloblasts, and the mesenchymal cells form all other differentiated cells (e.g., dentine forming odontoblasts, pulp, periodontal ligament) (Box 1). Teeth continue developing postnatally; the outer covering of enamel gradually becomes harder, and root formation, which is essential for tooth function, only starts to occur as part of tooth eruption in children.

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