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Archive for the ‘neuroscience’ category: Page 8

Oct 5, 2020

Neuroscientists discover a molecular mechanism that allows memories to form

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, neuroscience

When the brain forms a memory of a new experience, neurons called engram cells encode the details of the memory and are later reactivated whenever we recall it. A new MIT study reveals that this process is controlled by large-scale remodeling of cells’ chromatin.

This remodeling, which allows involved in storing memories to become more active, takes place in multiple stages spread out over several days. Changes to the density and arrangement of chromatin, a highly compressed structure consisting of DNA and proteins called histones, can control how active specific genes are within a given cell.

“This paper is the first to really reveal this very mysterious process of how different waves of genes become activated, and what is the epigenetic mechanism underlying these different waves of gene expression,” says Li-Huei Tsai, the director of MIT’s Picower Institute for Learning and Memory and the senior author of the study.

Oct 5, 2020

Press ‘delete’ to ditch a memory

Posted by in category: neuroscience

O,.o.


Ever wanted to get rid of a memory that holds you back or torments you? Well, you might soon be able to.

In an experiment out of the films Total Recall and Eternal Sunshine Of The Spotless Mind, painful experiences have been erased from the brain.

Continue reading “Press ‘delete’ to ditch a memory” »

Oct 4, 2020

Awakening After a Sleeping Pill

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Summary: A patient who suffered brain injury can temporarily walk, talk, and recognize family members thanks to the sleep medication Zolpidem.

Source: Radboud University

A patient who could not move and talk spontaneously for eight years started to do so again after being administered a sleeping pill. The spectacular but temporary effect was visualized with brain scans, giving researchers from Radboud university medical center and Amsterdam UMC a better understanding of this disorder’s underlying neurophysiological processes. The article has been published in Cortex.

Oct 4, 2020

Nurture Trumps Nature in Determining Severity of PTSD Symptoms

Posted by in categories: genetics, neuroscience

Summary: The ability to foster and form secure interpersonal attachments can mitigate some of the genetic risks associated with PTSD.

Source: Yale

Researchers at Yale and elsewhere previously identified a host of genetic risk factors that help explain why some veterans are especially susceptible to the debilitating symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Oct 3, 2020

The Road to Human 2.0

Posted by in categories: 3D printing, biotech/medical, computing, genetics, life extension, nanotechnology, neuroscience, transhumanism

In the coming 2020s, the world of medical science will make some significant breakthroughs. Through brain implants, we will have the capability to restore lost memories.

~ The 2020s will provide us with the computer power to make the first complete human brain simulation. Exponential growth in computation and data will make it possible to form accurate models of every part of the human brain and its 100 billion neurons.

~ The prototype of the human heart was 3D printed in 2019. By the mid- 2020s, customized 3D- printing of major human body organs will become possible. In the coming decades, more and more of the 78 organs in the human body will become printable.

Continue reading “The Road to Human 2.0” »

Oct 2, 2020

Researchers discover a rare genetic form of dementia

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, neuroscience

A new, rare genetic form of dementia has been discovered by a team of Penn Medicine researchers. This discovery also sheds light on a new pathway that leads to protein build up in the brain—which causes this newly discovered disease, as well as related neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s Disease—that could be targeted for new therapies. The study was published today in Science.

Alzheimer’s (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a buildup of proteins, called , in certain parts of the brain. Following an examination of human brain tissue samples from a deceased donor with an unknown neurodegenerative disease, researchers discovered a novel mutation in the Valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene in the brain, a buildup of tau proteins in areas that were degenerating, and neurons with empty holes in them, called vacuoles. The team named the newly discovered disease Vacuolar Tauopathy (VT)—a neurodegenerative disease now characterized by the accumulation of neuronal vacuoles and tau protein aggregates.

“Within a cell, you have proteins coming together, and you need a process to also be able to pull them apart, because otherwise everything kind of gets gummed up and doesn’t work. VCP is often involved in those cases where it finds proteins in an aggregate and pulls them apart,” Edward Lee, MD, Ph.D., an assistant professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. “We think that the mutation impairs the proteins’ normal ability to break aggregates apart.”

Oct 2, 2020

Surprising Brain Area Linked to Short-Term Memory

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, neuroscience

Researchers at Rockefeller University have just released findings from a new study, done in mice, which identifies a gene that is critical for short-term memory but functions in a part of the brain not traditionally associated with memory. Classical models for short-term memory typically assume that all neuronal activity is contained within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), yet, data from this new study suggests that a G-protein coupled receptor in the thalamus may play a large role. Data from the study was published recently in Cell through an article titled “A Thalamic Orphan Receptor Drives Variability in Short Term Memory.”

Interestingly, in order to discover new genes and brain circuits that are important for short-term memory, the researchers turned to studying genetically diverse mice, rather than inbred mice commonly used in research.

“We needed a population that is diverse enough to be able to answer the question of what genetic differences might account for variation in short-term memory,” explained co-senior study investigator Praveen Sethupathy, PhD, an associate professor of biomedical sciences in Cornell’s College of Veterinary Medicine and director of the Cornell Center for Vertebrate Genomics.

Oct 2, 2020

Could a poo transplant one day be the secret of eternal youth?

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, life extension, neuroscience

Fecal transplants could one day be used as a therapy to restore cognitive function in the elderly—according to new research from the University of East Anglia, the University of Florence and the Quadram Institute.

A new study published today shows how fecal transplants from older to younger mice altered their , which in turn impacted their spatial learning and memory.

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Oct 2, 2020

Novel Role of Microglia as Modulators of Neurons in the Brain Is Discovered

Posted by in categories: chemistry, neuroscience

Researchers have identified a bio-chemical circuit that supports neuron-microglia communication. When neurons are active, they release ATP. Microglia sense extracellular ATP and the compound draws the immune cell toward the neuron.circuit that supports neuron-microglia communication. When neurons are active, they release ATP. Microglia sense extracellular ATP and the compound draws the immune cell toward the neuron.circuit that supports neuron-microglia communication. When neurons are active, they release ATP. Microglia sense extracellular ATP and the compound draws the immune cell toward the neuron.

Oct 1, 2020

Why Neuralink Is Not AS Scary As You May Think

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Han from WrySci HX gives you a few different reasons why Neuralink is not quite as scary as you may think, especially if you’re not super familiar in the brain machine interface area. Share with a skeptic! More below ↓↓↓

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Continue reading “Why Neuralink Is Not AS Scary As You May Think” »

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