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Jul 23, 2020

Quantum physicists crack mystery of ‘strange metals,’ a new state of matter

Posted by in categories: cosmology, quantum physics

Even by the standards of quantum physicists, strange metals are just plain odd. The materials are related to high-temperature superconductors and have surprising connections to the properties of black holes. Electrons in strange metals dissipate energy as fast as they’re allowed to under the laws of quantum mechanics, and the electrical resistivity of a strange metal, unlike that of ordinary metals, is proportional to the temperature.

Generating a theoretical understanding of strange metals is one of the biggest challenges in condensed matter physics. Now, using cutting-edge computational techniques, researchers from the Flatiron Institute in New York City and Cornell University have solved the first robust theoretical model of strange metals. The work reveals that strange metals are a new state of matter, the researchers report July 22 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“The fact that we call them strange metals should tell you how well we understand them,” says study co-author Olivier Parcollet, a senior research scientist at the Flatiron Institute’s Center for Computational Quantum Physics (CCQ). “Strange metals share remarkable properties with black holes, opening exciting new directions for theoretical physics.”

Jul 23, 2020

Scientists discover a topological magnet that exhibits exotic quantum effects

Posted by in categories: engineering, mathematics, quantum physics

An international team led by researchers at Princeton University has uncovered a new class of magnet that exhibits novel quantum effects that extend to room temperature.

The researchers discovered a quantized topological phase in a pristine magnet. Their findings provide insights into a 30-year-old theory of how electrons spontaneously quantize and demonstrate a proof-of-principle method to discover new topological magnets. Quantum magnets are promising platforms for dissipationless current, high storage capacity and future green technologies. The study was published in the journal Nature this week.

The discovery’s roots lie in the workings of the quantum Hall effect- a form of topological effect which was the subject of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1985. This was the first time that a branch of theoretical mathematics, called topology, would start to fundamentally change how we describe and classify matter that makes up the world around us. Ever since, topological phases have been intensely studied in science and engineering. Many new classes of quantum materials with topological electronic structures have been found, including topological insulators and Weyl semimetals. However, while some of the most exciting theoretical ideas require , most materials explored have been nonmagnetic and show no quantization, leaving many tantalizing possibilities unfulfilled.

Jul 21, 2020

Quantum Computing: Looking Ahead To Endless Possibilities

Posted by in categories: quantum physics, robotics/AI, space

However, to dismiss the subject as fantastical or unnecessary would be akin to telling scientists 100 years ago that landing on the moon was also irrelevant.

This is because, for pioneers and champions of artificial intelligence, quantum computing is the holy grail. It’s not a make-believe fantasy; rather, it’s a tangible area of science that will take our probability-driven world into a whole new dimension.

Jul 21, 2020

Bounds on Lorentz Invariance Violation from MAGIC Observation of GRB 190114C

Posted by in category: quantum physics

An analysis of the speed of the most energetic photons ever observed from a gamma-ray burst sets new constraints on certain theories of quantum gravity.

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Jul 20, 2020

Scientists strengthen quantum building blocks in milestone critical for scale-up

Posted by in categories: computing, quantum physics

A group of international scientists have substantially lengthened the duration of time that a spin-orbit qubit in silicon can retain quantum information for, opening up a new pathway to make silicon quantum computers more scalable and functional.

Spin-orbit qubits have been investigated for over a decade as an option to scale up the number of qubits in a quantum computer, as they are easy to manipulate and couple over long distances. However, they have always shown very limited times, far too short for quantum technologies.

The research published today in Nature Materials shows that long coherence times are possible when spin-orbit coupling is strong enough. In fact, the scientists demonstrated coherence times 10,000 times longer than previously recorded for spin-orbit qubits, making them an ideal candidate for scaling up silicon quantum computers.

Jul 20, 2020

Ultimate precision limit of multi-parameter quantum magnetometry

Posted by in category: quantum physics

Quantum magnetometry, one of the most important applications in quantum metrology, aims to measure the magnetic field with the highest precision. Although estimation of one component of a magnetic field has been well studied over many decades, the highest precision that can be achieved with entangled probe states for the estimation of all three components of a magnetic field remains uncertain.

In particular, the specific questions include how to balance the precision tradeoff among different parameters, what is the ultimate precision, can this precision limit be achieved, and how to achieve it.

Under the lead of Prof. Guo Guangcan, Prof. Li Chuanfeng and Prof. Xiang Guoyong from University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, together with Prof. Yuan Haidong from the Chinese University of Hong Kong, obtained the ultimate precision for the of all three components of a with entangled probe states under the parallel scheme. The study was published online in Physical Review Letters.

Jul 20, 2020

A Programmable Quantum Chip, via Silicon Photonics

Posted by in categories: computing, quantum physics

U.K.-led research team packs more than 200 photonic components onto a chip that performs reconfigurable quantum information processing with light.

Jul 18, 2020

How Artificial Intelligence Is Changing Science

Posted by in categories: chemistry, information science, quantum physics, robotics/AI, science, space

The latest AI algorithms are probing the evolution of galaxies, calculating quantum wave functions, discovering new chemical compounds and more. Is there anything that scientists do that can’t be automated?

Jul 17, 2020

Atomtronic device could probe boundary between quantum, everyday worlds

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

A new device that relies on flowing clouds of ultracold atoms promises potential tests of the intersection between the weirdness of the quantum world and the familiarity of the macroscopic world we experience every day. The atomtronic Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) is also potentially useful for ultrasensitive rotation measurements and as a component in quantum computers.

“In a conventional SQUID, the quantum interference in electron currents can be used to make one of the most sensitive detectors,” said Changhyun Ryu, a physicist with the Material Physics and Applications Quantum group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. “We use rather than charged electrons. Instead of responding to magnetic fields, the atomtronic version of a SQUID is sensitive to mechanical rotation.”

Although small, at only about 10 millionths of a meter across, the atomtronic SQUID is thousands of times larger than the molecules and atoms that are typically governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. The relatively large scale of the device lets it test theories of macroscopic realism, which could help explain how the world we are familiar with is compatible with the quantum weirdness that rules the universe on very small scales. On a more pragmatic level, atomtronic SQUIDs could offer highly sensitive rotation sensors or perform calculations as part of quantum computers.

Jul 17, 2020

Researchers realize nanoscale electrometry based on magnetic-field-resistant spin sensors

Posted by in categories: computing, nanotechnology, quantum physics

A team led by Prof. Du Jiangfeng, Prof. Shi Fazhan, and Prof. Wang Ya from University of Science and Technology of China, of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, proposed a robust electrometric method utilizing a continuous dynamic decoupling technique, where the continuous driving fields provide a magnetic-field-resistant dressed frame. The study was published in Physical Review Letters on June 19.

Characterization of electrical properties and comprehension of the dynamics in nanoscale become significant in the development of modern electronic devices, such as semi-conductor transistors and quantum chips, especially when the feature size has shrunk to several nanometers.

The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond—an atomic-scale spin sensor—has shown to be an attractive electrometer. Electrometry using the NV center would improve various sensing and imaging applications. However, its natural susceptibility to the magnetic field hinders effective detection of the electric field.

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