Archive for the ‘neuroscience’ category: Page 15

Aug 5, 2021

Connectomes across development reveal principles of brain maturation

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Serial-section electron microscopy is used to reconstruct the full brain connectome of eight individual Caenorhabditis elegans at various stages of development, providing insight into the principles underlying brain maturation.

Aug 5, 2021

Marijuana-Like Brain Substance Calms Seizures but Increases After-Effects

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, neuroscience

But 2-AG is almost immediately converted to arachidonic acid, a building block for inflammatory compounds called prostaglandins. The researchers showed that the ensuing increase in arachidonic acid levels resulted in the buildup of a particular variety of prostaglandin that causes constriction of tiny blood vessels in the brain where the seizure has induced thatprostaglandin’s production, cutting off oxygen supply to those brain areas.

Summary: The release of 2-AG, a natural endocannabinoid that is suggested to be the brain’s equivalent to THC, dampens down seizure activity but increases post-seizure oxygen deprivation in the brain.

Source: Stanford

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Aug 5, 2021

Study Yields Tiny Targets for Healing Human Memory

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Summary: Researchers believe they have found a cause of memory loss in epilepsy patients by recording single neurons in the brain.

Source: Cedars Sinai.

The discovery could offer a way to measure the effectiveness of memory-restoring therapies including medications and deep-brain stimulation. It also could be a step toward recovering lost memory among patients with a variety of brain conditions.

Aug 5, 2021

Cognitive decline: Investigating dietary factors

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, food, neuroscience

A great beginning, but more research is needed.

While there are treatments for temporarily alleviating the symptoms of dementia, there is currently no cure available. The search is therefore on to identify lifestyle factors, such as diet, that can reduce individuals’ risk of developing the condition.

Previous research into possible links between eating foods rich in flavonoids and reduced risk of cognitive decline later in life has been inconclusive, however.

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Aug 4, 2021

Repair of Mitochondrial Recycling Defect Linked to Parkinson’s Disease

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Summary: An experimental small molecule helped restore the removal of mitochondria from dopamine-producing neurons in the brain. The findings may help in the development of new therapies for Parkinson’s disease.

Source: Life.

Treating mice that have a Parkinson’s disease-causing mutation with a small molecule compound restores the removal of damaged mitochondria from their brain cells, shows a study published today in eLife.

Aug 4, 2021

Innovative Gel Offers New Hope to Defeat Parkinson’s Disease

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Summary: A new hydrogel that acts as a gateway to transfer stem cells into the brain and facilitate repair to damaged tissue may effectively treat neurological conditions like Parkinson’s disease and stroke.

Source: Australian National University

Researchers from The Australian National University (ANU), in collaboration with The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, have developed a new type of hydrogel that could radically transform how we treat Parkinson’s disease.

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Aug 3, 2021

Learning Foreign Languages Can Affect the Processing of Music in the Brain

Posted by in categories: media & arts, neuroscience

Summary: Learning a new language can affect musical processing in children, researchers report. Findings support the theory that musical and linguistic functions are closely linked in the developing brain.

Source: University of Helsinki.

Research has shown that a music-related hobby boosts language skills and affects the processing of speech in the brain. According to a new study, the reverse also happens—learning foreign languages can affect the processing of music in the brain.

Aug 3, 2021

A fun piece: The Most Amazing Things About Animal Consciousness

Posted by in category: neuroscience

“We patronize [the animals] for their incompleteness, for their tragic fate of having taken form so far below ourselves. And therein we err, and greatly err.” Animals diverge from us in wonderfully creative ways. Did you know dogs have magnetotactic abilities and prefer to relieve themselves along a north-south axis? And dolphins echolocation allows them to see X-ray-like images & “tell” other dolphins what they’ve seen without our clumsy, 1-word-at-a-time process. Instead, they create a visual picture of what they saw in the minds of other dolphins, perhaps even “bolding” aspects they want to emphasize.

Aug 2, 2021

Theory of Mind in Humans and Machines

Posted by in category: neuroscience

To promote an ethical approach in human-machine interaction.

The theory of mind is about recognizing other minds, comprehend emotions, understand intentions, and predict behaviors that are essential for intelligent social interaction. The capability to detect others’ minds is critical to human cognition and social interaction. It allows us to build relationships and work cooperatively to achieve common goals.

Research has shown that having a sophisticated theory of mind may be a large part of why humans have cognitive skills. This ability is so important that when it is disrupted, as we see in some cases of autism, vital cerebral functions like language learning and imagination become impaired.

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Jul 31, 2021

Pupil size surprisingly linked to differences in intelligence

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Maybe eyes really are windows into the soul — or at least into the brain, as a new study finds.

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