Archive for the ‘neuroscience’ category: Page 12

Dec 2, 2021

Researchers develop a two-photon microscope that provides unprecedented brain-imaging ability

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Advancing our understanding of the human brain will require new insights into how neural circuitry works in mammals, including laboratory mice. These investigations require monitoring brain activity with a microscope that provides resolution high enough to see individual neurons and their neighbors.

Two-photon fluorescence microscopy has significantly enhanced researchers’ ability to do just that, and the lab of Spencer LaVere Smith, an associate professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at UC Santa Barbara, is a hotbed of research for advancing the technology. As principal investigator on the five-year, $9 million NSF-funded Next Generation Multiphoton Neuroimaging Consortium (Nemonic) hub, which was born of President Obama’s BRAIN Initiative and is headquartered at UCSB, Smith is working to “push the frontiers of multi-photon microscopy for neuroscience research.”

In the Nov. 17 issue of Nature Communications, Smith and his co-authors report the development of a new microscope they describe as “Dual Independent Enhanced Scan Engines for Large Field-of-view Two-Photon imaging (Diesel2p).” Their two-photon microscope provides unprecedented brain-imaging ability. The device has the largest field of view (up to 25 square millimeters) of any such instrument, allowing it to provide subcellular resolution of multiple areas of the brain.

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Dec 2, 2021

Regenerative Nanotransfection: Innovative Nanochip Can Reprogram Biological Tissue in Living Body

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health, neuroscience

A silicon device that can change skin tissue into blood vessels and nerve cells has advanced from prototype to standardized fabrication, meaning it can now be made in a consistent, reproducible way. As reported in Nature Protocols, this work, developed by researchers at the Indiana University School of Medicine, takes the device one step closer to potential use as a treatment for people with a variety of health concerns.

The technology, called tissue nanotransfection, is a non-invasive nanochip device that can reprogram tissue function by applying a harmless electric spark to deliver specific genes in a fraction of a second. In laboratory studies, the device successfully converted skin tissue into blood vessels to repair a badly injured leg. The technology is currently being used to reprogram tissue for different kinds of therapies, such as repairing brain damage caused by stroke or preventing and reversing nerve damage caused by diabetes.

Dec 1, 2021

Scientists say they might have discovered the cause of Alzheimer’s

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Scientists in California tried to study Alzheimer’s disease from a different perspective and the results may have led them to the cause of the disease.

Researchers at the University of California-Riverside (UCR) recently published results from a study that looked at a protein called tau. By studying the different forms tau proteins take, researchers discovered the difference between people who developed dementia and those who didn’t.

The tau protein was critical for researchers because they wanted to understand what the protein could reveal about the mechanism behind plaques and tangles, two critical indicators doctors look for when diagnosing people with Alzheimer’s.

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Dec 1, 2021

Scientists listed ways of applying genetic engineering to treat Parkinson’s disease

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, genetics, neuroscience

Circa 2019

Researchers of Sechenov University and University of Pittsburgh described the most promising strategies in applying genetic engineering for studying and treating Parkinson’s disease. This method can help evaluate the role of various cellular processes in pathology progression, develop new drugs and therapies, and estimate their efficacy using animal disease models. The study was published in Free Radical Biology and Medicine.

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by a wide array of motor and cognitive impairments. It develops mostly among elderly people (after the age of 55–60). Parkinson’s symptoms usually begin gradually and get worse over time. As the disease progresses, people may have difficulty controlling their movements, walking and talking and, more importantly, taking care of themselves. Although there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, medicines, surgical treatment, and other therapies can often relieve some symptoms.

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Dec 1, 2021

It’s Happening! New Brain Computer Interface IMPROVES Mental Functioning

Posted by in categories: computing, neuroscience

New BCI improves mental functioning, cognitive control, and relieves anxiety!

Hey it’s Han from WrySci HX presenting you with 5 awesome brain computer interface developments over the past year. Truly amazing stuff by all the researchers and am excited for what’s in store for the future. More below ↓↓↓

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Dec 1, 2021

Certain Brain Waves Aren’t Just Background Noise

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Summary: Findings shed new light on how brain states are regulated and how the brain can switch between them.

Source: University of Oregon

Even when at rest, the brain is never truly quiet.

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Dec 1, 2021

The Science of Mind Reading

Posted by in categories: neuroscience, robotics/AI, science

𝙏𝙝𝙚 𝙎𝙘𝙞𝙚𝙣𝙘𝙚 𝙤𝙛 𝙈𝙞𝙣𝙙 𝙍𝙚𝙖𝙙𝙞𝙣𝙜

𝙍𝙚𝙨𝙚𝙖𝙧𝙘𝙝𝙚𝙧𝙨 𝙖𝙧𝙚 𝙥𝙪𝙧𝙨𝙪𝙞𝙣𝙜 𝙖𝙜𝙚-𝙤𝙡𝙙 𝙦𝙪𝙚𝙨𝙩𝙞𝙤𝙣𝙨 𝙖𝙗𝙤𝙪𝙩 𝙩𝙝𝙚 𝙣𝙖𝙩𝙪𝙧𝙚 𝙤𝙛 𝙩𝙝𝙤𝙪𝙜𝙝𝙩𝙨—𝙖𝙣𝙙 𝙡𝙚𝙖𝙧𝙣𝙞𝙣𝙜 𝙝𝙤𝙬 𝙩𝙤 𝙧𝙚𝙖𝙙 𝙩𝙝𝙚𝙢.

𝙏𝙝𝙚 𝙉𝙚𝙬 𝙔𝙤𝙧𝙠𝙚𝙧:

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Nov 30, 2021

Jun Tani: The self-Organizing Functional Hierarchy: a neuro-robotics study — Part 1

Posted by in categories: neuroscience, robotics/AI

The current talk addresses a crucial problem on how compositionality can be naturally developed in cognitive agents by having iterative sensory-motor interactions with the environment.

The talk highlights a dynamic neural network model, so-called the multiple timescales recurrent neural network (MTRNN) model, which has been applied to a set of experiments on developmental learning of compositional actions performed by a humanoid robot made by Sony. The experimental results showed that a set of reusable behavior primitives were developed in the lower level network that is characterized by its fast timescale dynamics while sequential combinations of these primitives were learned in the higher level, which is characterized by its slow timescale dynamics.

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Nov 30, 2021

Dynamic Causal Modelling — Karl Friston

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Serious Science —

Neuroscientist Karl Friston on functional specialization of different brain areas, brain hierarchy, and the connectome.

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Nov 30, 2021

Controlling Brain Circuits, Behavior, and Emotion Using Light

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Summary: A newly developed system dubbed Opto-vTrap can temporarily trap vesicles from being released from brain cells.

Source: Institute for Basic Science.

Controlling signal transmission and reception within the brain circuits is necessary for neuroscientists to achieve a better understanding of the brain’s functions. Communication among neuron and glial cells is mediated by various neurotransmitters being released from the vesicles through exocytosis. Thus, regulating vesicular exocytosis can be a possible strategy to control and understand brain circuits.

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