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Archive for the ‘nanotechnology’ category: Page 7

Mar 24, 2022

New technique opens door to cheaper semiconductors, higher chip yield

Posted by in categories: computing, mobile phones, nanotechnology

Scientists from the NTU Singapore and the Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM) have developed a technique to create a highly uniform and scalable semiconductor wafer, paving the way to higher chip yield and more cost-efficient semiconductors.

Left: Image of a six-inch silicon wafer with printed metal layers and its top-view scanning electron microscope image. Right: Image of the six-inch silicon wafer with nanowires and its cross-sectional scanning electron microscope image. (Image: NTU Singpore)

Semiconductor chips commonly found in smart phones and computers are difficult and complex to make, requiring highly advanced machines and special environments to manufacture.

Mar 24, 2022

A new class of materials for nanopatterning

Posted by in categories: computing, nanotechnology

The microscopic components that make up computer chips must be made at staggering scales. With billions of transistors in a single processor, each made of multiple materials carefully arranged in patterns as thin as a strand of DNA, their manufacturing tools must also operate at a molecular level.

Typically, these tools involve using stencils to selectively pattern or remove materials with high fidelity, layer after layer, to form nanoscale electronic devices. But as chips must fit more and more components to keep up with the digital world’s growing computational demands, these nanopatterning stencils must also become smaller and more precise.

Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated how a new class of polymers could do just that. In a new study, the researchers demonstrated how “multiblock” copolymers can produce exceptionally ordered patterns in thin films, achieving spacings smaller than three nanometers.

Mar 23, 2022

Biomimetic Nanoparticles for Targeted Cancer Therapy

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, nanotechnology

Circa 2021


Novel fluorescence imaging assay provides new insights for developing more effective cancer nanomedicines.

Mar 22, 2022

All Charged Up: Engineers Create A Battery Made Of Wood

Posted by in category: nanotechnology

This doesn’t look like your trusty potato battery: a prototype device made by scientists at the University of Maryland uses wood fibers coated with carbon nanotubes to create an electric current.

Mar 21, 2022

So Where Exactly Are We With Nanotechnology? | Answers With Joe

Posted by in categories: nanotechnology, sustainability

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We’ve been hearing for years how nanotechnology is going to change the world. In movies and in headlines, nanotechnology is almost like “future magic” that will make the impossible possible. But how realistic are those predictions? And how close are we to seeing some of them come true? Let’s take a look at the state of nanotechnology.

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Mar 20, 2022

Nanotechnology Repairs Engine Damage in Cars

Posted by in categories: materials, nanotechnology

NASA

That spot of oil on the garage floor dripping from your engine indicates a problem. It’s so small that you put off going to the mechanic, until you hear a new noise and the oil pressure warning light goes off. The bad news is that one of the bearings in the crankshaft is the source of the issue. Due to wear, the normally round part is now more elliptical in shape. Some of the metal has worn away, landing you with a costly repair.

This kind of wear on engine components is common because of friction, and it happens in all machinery with moving parts. Lubricants that reduce friction can only delay and minimize this inevitable damage. The idea of reversing that wear by fixing a worn part was the dream of Washington State University PhD candidate Pavlo “Pasha” Rudenko, who decided to research using smart nanoparticles to replace eroded material.

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Mar 19, 2022

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Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, cyborgs, genetics, nanotechnology, robotics/AI, singularity, transhumanism, virtual reality

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Mar 17, 2022

Simpler graphene method paves way for new era of nanoelectronics

Posted by in categories: chemistry, nanotechnology, particle physics

Ever since its discovery in 2004, graphene has received attention owing to its extraordinary properties, among them its extremely high carrier mobility. However, the high carrier mobility has only been observed using techniques that require complex and expensive fabrication methods. Now, researchers at Chalmers report on a surprisingly high charge-carrier mobility of graphene using much cheaper and simpler methods.

“This finding shows that graphene transferred to cheap and flexible substrates can still have an uncompromisingly high mobility, and it paves the way for a new era of graphene nano-electronics,” says Munis Khan, researcher at Chalmers University of Technology.

Graphene is the one-atom-thick layer of carbon atoms, known as the world’s thinnest material. The material has become a popular choice in semiconductor, automotive and optoelectronic industry due to its excellent electrical, chemical, and material properties. One such property is its extremely .

Mar 17, 2022

Self-assembling and complex, nanoscale mesocrystals can be tuned for a variety of uses

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, nanotechnology, solar power

A research team from KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces reports to have found the key to controlled fabrication of cerium oxide mesocrystals. The research is a step forward in tuning nanomaterials that can serve a wide range of uses—including solar cells, fuel catalysts and even medicine.

Mesocrystals are nanoparticles with identical size, shape and crystallographic orientation, and they can be used as to create artificial nanostructures with customized optical, magnetic or electronic properties. In nature, these three-dimensional structures are found in coral, sea urchins and calcite desert rose, for example. Artificially-produced cerium oxide (CeO2) mesocrystals—or nanoceria—are well-known as catalysts, with antioxidant properties that could be useful in pharmaceutical development.

“To be able to fabricate CeO2 mesocrystals in a controlled way, one needs to understand the formation mechanism of these materials,” says Inna Soroka, a researcher in applied at KTH. She says the team used radiation chemistry to reveal for the first time the ceria mesocrystal formation mechanism.

Mar 17, 2022

Wax-coated sand keeps soil wet longer, improves crop yields in arid regions

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, nanotechnology

Dry, hot regions are difficult places to grow plants because the soil dries out quickly. As a result, farmers in arid and semi-arid regions irrigate their fields with buried networks of irrigation tubing and cover the ground with plastic sheets. But plastic sheets are expensive and create waste. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Agricultural Science & Technology have developed a simple, biodegradable ground cover—wax-coated sand—which keeps soil wet and increases crop yields.

To irrigate crops, farmers usually get water from nearby waterways or underground aquifers. These supplies can be rapidly depleted when growing plants in , where the soil is comprised mostly of sand and can’t hold onto water well. One way to improve irrigated water’s efficiency is to make sure it stays in the soil long enough so that plants’ roots can take it up. Previous studies have shown that ground cover barriers, such as plastic sheets and engineered nanomaterials, can slow evaporation and enhance and . However, both could leach unwanted compounds into the soil with unknown long-term impacts. Some plants and animals naturally produce waxy substances that trap and pool water from fog or condensation so that they can access these moisture sources. Taking inspiration from nature, Himanshu Mishra and colleagues wanted to see if they could coat sand with wax, creating an environmentally benign ground cover to control soil evaporation.

The researchers chose purified paraffin wax, a biodegradable substance available in large quantities, for their experiments. They dissolved the wax in hexane and poured silica sand into the mixture. As the solvent evaporated, a 20-nm-thick coating of wax was left behind on the grains. When the team applied the wax-coated sand in a on an open field in Saudi Arabia, it decreased the loss of soil moisture up to 50–80%. Field trials revealed that tomato, barley and wheat plants mulched with the new material produced substantially more fruit and grain than those grown in uncovered soil. In addition, the microbial community around the plants’ roots and in the soil wasn’t negatively impacted by the waxy mulch, which could have acted as a food source for some of the microbes. This simple nature-inspired technology could make more efficient in arid regions, the researchers say.

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