Archive for the ‘materials’ category: Page 9

Nov 13, 2022

Excitonic superfluid phase in double bilayer graphene Physics

Posted by in categories: materials, particle physics

face_with_colon_three circa 2017.

Strongly interacting bosons have been predicted to display a transition into a superfluid ground state, similar to Bose–Einstein condensation. This effect is now observed in a double bilayer graphene structure, with excitons as the bosonic particles.

Nov 13, 2022

Research team creates a superfluid in a record-high magnetic field

Posted by in categories: materials, particle physics

Circa 2015 face_with_colon_three

MIT physicists have created a superfluid gas, the so-called Bose-Einstein condensate, for the first time in an extremely high magnetic field. The magnetic field is a synthetic magnetic field, generated using laser beams, and is 100 times stronger than that of the world’s strongest magnets. Within this magnetic field, the researchers could keep a gas superfluid for a tenth of a second—just long enough for the team to observe it. The researchers report their results this week in the journal Nature Physics.

A superfluid is a phase of matter that only certain liquids or gases can assume, if they are cooled to extremely low temperatures. At temperatures approaching absolute zero, cease their individual, energetic trajectories, and start to move collectively as one wave.

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Nov 12, 2022

Scientists Reproduce Fascinating, Powerful Material Found in Meteorite

Posted by in categories: materials, space

In an unprecedented experiment, two teams of scientists on either sides of the Atlantic have replicated a material that was previously not produced anywhere on Earth.

As NPR reports, the replication of this powerful compound could have huge implications not just for the manufacturing of high-end machinery, but also for international relations to boot.

Called tetrataenite, the primarily iron-and-nickel compound is normally able to cool for millions of years as it tumbles around in asteroids. As a press release out of the University of Cambridge notes, the researchers who worked in tandem with Boston’s Northeastern University found that if they add phosphorous to the mix, they were able to make synthetic tetrataenite.

Nov 11, 2022

Study demonstrates tailored Ising superconductivity in intercalated bulk niobium diselenide

Posted by in categories: materials, quantum physics

When 2D layered materials are made thinner (i.e., at the atomic scale), their properties can dramatically change, sometimes resulting in the emergence of entirely new features and in the loss of others. While new or emerging properties can be very advantageous for the development of new technologies, retaining some of the material’s original properties is often equally important.

Researchers at Tsinghua University, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Frontier Science Center for Quantum Information have recently been able to realize tailored Ising superconductivity in a sample of intercalated bulk niobium diselenide (NbSe2), a characteristic of bulk NbSe2 that is typically compromised in . The methods they used, outlined in a paper published in Nature Physics, could pave the way towards the fabrication of 2D thin-layered superconducting materials.

“Atomically thin 2D materials exhibit interesting properties that are often distinct from their bulk materials, which consist of hundreds and thousands of layers,” Shuyun Zhou, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told “However, atomically thin films/flakes are difficult to fabricate, and the emerging new properties are sometimes achieved by sacrificing some other important properties.”

Nov 11, 2022

Overcoming Scale-Up Challenges in Gene Therapy Manufacturing

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, materials

My good friend Logan collins posted this.

Gene therapies can scale economically, but not just with practices adapted from traditional biologics. According to Avantor, gene therapies pose unique material, workflow, and partnering challenges.

Nov 10, 2022

Scientists Create Crystals That Generate Electricity From Heat

Posted by in category: materials

In the effort to efficiently convert heat into electricity, easily accessible materials from harmless raw materials open up new perspectives in the development of safe and inexpensive so-called thermoelectric materials. A synthetic copper mineral acquires a complex structure and microstructure through simple changes in its composition, thereby laying the foundation for the desired properties, according to a study published recently in the journal Angewandte Chemie.

The novel synthetic material is composed of copper, manganese, germanium, and sulfur, and it is produced in a rather simple process, explains materials scientist Emmanuel Guilmeau, CNRS researcher at CRISMAT laboratory, Caen, France, who is the corresponding author of the study. The powders are simply mechanically alloyed by ball-milling to form a precrystallized phase, which is then densified by 600 degrees Celsius.

The Celsius scale, also known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius. In the Celsius scale, 0 °C is the freezing point of water and 100 °C is the boiling point of water at 1 atm pressure.

Nov 10, 2022

Researchers create device to replicate conditions in blood vessels after grafts

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, materials

Tohid Didar and Jeff Weitz had a solution, but they also had a problem.

Didar, an associate professor of engineering and Weitz, a hematologist, professor of medicine and executive director of the Thrombosis & Atherosclerosis Research Institute, had collaborated to create a novel and highly promising material to improve the success of vascular grafts, but they needed a better way to test how well it worked.

Their revolutionary idea was an engineered non-stick surface combined with biological components that can repel all but a targeted group of cells — those that form the natural lining of the body’s veins and arteries.

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Nov 9, 2022

Atomic changes in metals could lead to longer-lasting batteries

Posted by in categories: materials, transportation

Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are studying the atomic-level changes in metals undergoing shear deformation in order to deduce the effects of physical forces on these materials, according to a report by published on Monday.

The work could lead to many new and improved applications such as longer-lasting batteries and lighter vehicles.

Nov 9, 2022

Magnetism or no magnetism? The influence of substrates on electronic interactions

Posted by in categories: energy, materials

A new study at Monash University illustrates how substrates affect strong electronic interactions in two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks.

Materials with strong electronic interactions can have applications in energy-efficient electronics. When these materials are placed on a , their are changed by charge transfer, strain, and hybridization.

The study also shows that electric fields and applied strain could be used to “switch” interacting phases such as on and off, allowing potential applications in future energy-efficient electronics.

Nov 9, 2022

Materials Made of Mechanical Neural Networks Can Learn to Adapt Their Physical Properties

Posted by in categories: materials, robotics/AI

A new type of material can learn and improve its ability to deal with unexpected forces thanks to a unique lattice structure with connections of variable stiffness, as described in a new paper by my colleagues and me.

The new material is a type of architected material, which gets its properties mainly from the geometry and specific traits of its design rather than what it is made out of. Take hook-and-loop fabric closures like Velcro, for example. It doesn’t matter whether it is made from cotton, plastic or any other substance. As long as one side is a fabric with stiff hooks and the other side has fluffy loops, the material will have the sticky properties of Velcro.

My colleagues and I based our new material’s architecture on that of an artificial neural network—layers of interconnected nodes that can learn to do tasks by changing how much importance, or weight, they place on each connection. We hypothesized that a mechanical lattice with physical nodes could be trained to take on certain mechanical properties by adjusting each connection’s rigidity.

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