Archive for the ‘chemistry’ category: Page 6

Oct 23, 2023

Tucatinib plus Trastuzumab Effective in HER2+ Biliary Cancer

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry

Next generation sequencing is now essential for patients with metastatic biliary cancer given the identification of targetable pathways, including fibroblast growth factor receptor and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, for which there are approved treatments. HER2 has emerged as a target in metastatic biliary cancer, with studies finding 5% to 15% of cancers positive for overexpression or gene amplification.

Investigators now report results of an industry-sponsored, phase 2 basket study (SGNTUC-019) testing the combination of tucatinib — a HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor — and trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive advanced biliary cancer that progressed on first-line gemcitabine/cisplatin–based chemotherapy. Local testing for HER2 was permissible via immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, or next generation sequencing of tissue or blood.

Of 30 patients, half were men, 77% were Asian, half had gallbladder primaries, and half had intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. During a median follow-up of 10.8 months, the primary endpoint of antitumor response rate was 46.7%, and duration of response was 6 months. The median progression-free survival was 5.5 months; median overall survival was 15.5 months. Treatment-related grade 3 or 4 serious adverse events were uncommon and attributable to tucatinib in 10% of patients and to trastuzumab in 6.7%; grade 3 diarrhea occurred in 6.6%.

Oct 22, 2023

How a Piece of Roman Glass Became a Photonic Crystal

Posted by in categories: chemistry, nanotechnology

As it lay buried for two millennia, a fragment of glass gradually acquired a nanostructured surface that reflects light like a butterfly’s wings.

The ancient Roman city of Aquileia was situated close to Italy’s modern border with Slovenia. Over the centuries since its founding in 181 BCE, Aquileia suffered floods, earthquakes, sieges, and sackings. Little remains of this ancient city of 100,000 inhabitants, but archaeologists have uncovered relics from that early period. One such specimen is a glass shard discovered in 2012 on farmland in the outskirts of the modern city of Aquileia. The shard is striking in its coloration: an iridescent surface of deep blue and shiny gold atop a substrate of dark green. Now, after subjecting the shard to a string of chemical and physical tests, Giulia Guidetti of Tufts University, Massachusetts, and her collaborators have identified the origin of the shard’s appearance: a chemical transformation of the amorphous glass into a nanolayered material, a photonic crystal [1].

Glassmaking was invented independently by several Bronze Age civilizations (3300 BCE to 1,200 BCE), including those of ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley. Glass beads, vessels, and figurines remained luxury items until the Romans invented the technique of glassblowing in the first century CE. As blowing technology spread, glassware became cheaper and faster to produce in a greater variety of shapes. Items manufactured in the Roman Empire included jars for cosmetics, jugs for condiments, and cups for wine.

Oct 22, 2023

NOAA scientists link exotic metal particles in the upper atmosphere to rockets, satellites

Posted by in categories: chemistry, climatology, particle physics, satellites

NOAA scientists investigating the stratosphere have found that in addition to meteoric ‘space dust,’ the atmosphere more than seven miles above the surface is peppered with particles containing a variety of metals from satellites and spent rocket boosters vaporized by the intense heat of re-entry.

The discovery is one of the initial findings from analysis of data collected by a high-altitude research plane over the Arctic during a NOAA Chemical Science Laboratory mission called SABRE, short for Stratospheric Aerosol processes, Budget and Radiative Effects. It’s the agency’s most ambitious and intensive effort to date to investigate aerosol particles in the stratosphere, a layer of the atmosphere that moderates Earth’s climate and is home to the protective ozone layer.

Using an extraordinarily sensitive instrument custom-built at NOAA in Boulder, Colorado, and mounted in the nose of a NASA WB-57 research aircraft, scientists found aluminum and exotic metals embedded in about 10 percent of sulfuric acid particles, which comprise the large majority of particles in the stratosphere. They were also able to match the ratio of rare elements they measured to special alloys used in rockets and satellites, confirming their source as metal vaporized from spacecraft reentering Earth’s atmosphere.

Oct 21, 2023

Only 1% of chemical compounds have been discovered — here’s how we search for others that could change the world

Posted by in category: chemistry

The limitless world of chemistry and how researchers investigate it.

Oct 20, 2023

Decoding Complexity: MIT’s Insight Into Individual Neurons and Behavior

Posted by in categories: chemistry, education, engineering, neuroscience

Study finds that in worms, the HSN neuron uses multiple chemicals and connections to orchestrate egg-laying and locomotion over the course of several minutes.

A new MIT

MIT is an acronym for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is a prestigious private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts that was founded in 1861. It is organized into five Schools: architecture and planning; engineering; humanities, arts, and social sciences; management; and science. MIT’s impact includes many scientific breakthroughs and technological advances. Their stated goal is to make a better world through education, research, and innovation.

Oct 20, 2023

Electron Beams Magically Heal Microscopic Fractures, May Also Enable Creation of Objects One Atom at a Time

Posted by in categories: alien life, chemistry, nanotechnology, particle physics

The molecular synthesizer once thought to be impossible to make is now quite a possibility due to this discovery with electron beams that can heal crystalline structures and also build objects from electron beams this could one day be amplified to create even food with light into matter electron beams. Also this could create even life or even rebirth a universe or planet or sun really eventually anything that is matter. Really it is a molecular assembler with nearly limitless applications.

Electron beams can be used to heal nano-fractures in crystals instead of causing further damage to them, as initially expected by researchers who now report their surprise findings. Used to power microscopes that examine the smallest materials in the universe, electron beams may also be able to be used to create novel microstructures one atom at a time.

A feat once thought impossible, researchers at the University of Minnesota Twin Cities (UMN) behind the discovery said it had been assumed that using electron beams to study nanostructures carried the additional risk of exacerbating microscopic cracks and flaws already in the material.

Continue reading “Electron Beams Magically Heal Microscopic Fractures, May Also Enable Creation of Objects One Atom at a Time” »

Oct 20, 2023

Chatbot Offers Roadmap for How to Conduct a Bio Weapons Attack

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, information science, robotics/AI

Jailbroken large language models (LLMs) and generative AI chatbots — the kind any hacker can access on the open Web — are capable of providing in-depth, accurate instructions for carrying out large-scale acts of destruction, including bio-weapons attacks.

An alarming new study from RAND, the US nonprofit think tank, offers a canary in the coal mine for how bad actors might weaponize this technology in the (possibly near) future.

In an experiment, experts asked an uncensored LLM to plot out theoretical biological weapons attacks against large populations. The AI algorithm was detailed in its response and more than forthcoming in its advice on how to cause the most damage possible, and acquire relevant chemicals without raising suspicion.

Oct 19, 2023

Art with DNA—digitally creating 16 million colors by chemistry

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry

The DNA double helix is composed of two DNA molecules whose sequences are complementary to each other. The stability of the duplex can be fine-tuned in the lab by controlling the amount and location of imperfect complementary sequences.

Fluorescent markers bound to one of the matching DNA strands make the duplex visible, and fluorescence intensity increases with increasing duplex stability. Now, researchers at the University of Vienna succeeded in creating fluorescent duplexes that can generate any of 16 million colors—a work that surpasses the previous 256 colors limitation.

This very large palette can be used to “paint” with DNA and to accurately reproduce any digital image on a miniature 2D surface with 24-bit color depth. This research was published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

Oct 16, 2023

Researchers develop organic nanozymes suitable for agricultural use

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, engineering, food, nanotechnology

Nanozymes are synthetic materials that mimic the properties of natural enzymes for applications in biomedicine and chemical engineering. Historically, they are generally considered too toxic and expensive for use in agriculture and food science. Now, researchers from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign have developed a nanozyme that is organic, non-toxic, environmentally friendly, and cost effective.

In a newly published paper, they describe its features and its capacity to detect the presence of glyphosate, a common agricultural herbicide. Their goal is to eventually create an user-friendly test kit for consumers and agricultural producers.

“The word nanozyme is derived from nanomaterial and enzyme. Nanozymes were first developed about 15 years ago, when researchers found that may perform catalytic activity similar to natural enzymes (peroxidase),” explained Dong Hoon Lee, a doctoral student in the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering (ABE), part of the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences (ACES) and The Grainger College of Engineering at U. of I.

Oct 16, 2023

Tiny memory cell withstands extreme temperatures, enables smaller and better semiconductors for microelectronics

Posted by in categories: chemistry, materials

Materials scientists at Kiel University and the Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology in Itzehoe (ISIT) have cleared another hurdle in the development and structuring of new materials for next-generation semiconductor devices, such as novel memory cells.

They have shown that ferroelectric aluminum scandium can be scaled down to a few nanometers and can store different states, making it suitable as a nanoswitch. In addition, they have proved aluminum scandium nitride to be a particularly stable and powerful semiconductor material for current technologies based on silicon, and gallium nitride. In contrast to today’s microelectronics, the material can withstand extreme temperatures of up to 1,000°C.

This opens up applications such as information storage or sensors for combustion processes in engines or turbines in both the chemical industry and in the steel industry. The results were published in the journal Advanced Science. The study was part of a research project that brings together basic research in materials development and applications in microelectronics.

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