Archive for the ‘chemistry’ category: Page 5

Nov 1, 2023

Lung cancer awareness: The importance of early detection and treatment

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry

Lung cancer is the third most common cancer in the U.S. and there have been more than 235,000 new cases of lung cancer in 2021. While this figure is significant, the rate of new lung and bronchus cancer cases is decreasing, in part because more people have stopped smoking. This trend, along with innovations in early detection and treatment, is also reducing the number of lung cancer deaths.

Dr. Robert Taylor Ripley, associate professor of surgery in the Division of General Thoracic Surgery, is an expert in mesothelioma and thoracic surgical oncology. In the following Q&A, he discusses common causes of lung cancer, risks and the latest treatments.

Q: What are the most common causes of lung cancer? A: Smoking cigarettes is the most common cause, but others include secondhand smoke and environmental inhalants. We see a fair number of patients with lung cancer who have never smoked. Exposure to diesel exhaust or other chemicals may also cause lung cancer in some non-smokers.

Nov 1, 2023

Melanoma Treating Soap: 14-year-old invents cancer-fighting soap

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry

The Melanoma Treating Soap (MTS) was created using cancer-fighting chemicals, mainly Imidazoquinoline, integrated with a nanolipid-based particle transporter.

As child prodigies emerge in the world of innovation at younger ages than ever before, a 14-year-old student named Heman Bekele, residing in Fairfax, Virginia, developed a soap called MTS (Melanoma Treating Soap) to treat skin cancer.

Bekele’s efforts earned him the top prize in the 3M Young Scientist’s Challenge this year, a competition that motivates children to devise innovative solutions for common issues.

Oct 31, 2023

How nanobots and nanomedicine will improve our health

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, computing, health, nanotechnology, quantum physics

Nanotechnology sounds like a futuristic development, but we already have it in the form of CPU manufacturing. More advanced nanotech could be used to create independent mobile entities like nanobots. One of the main challenges is selecting the right chemicals, elements, and structures that actually perform a desired task. Currently, we create more chemically oriented than computationally oriented nanobots, but we still have to deal with the quantum effects at tiny scale.

One of the most important applications of nanotechnology is to create nanomedicine, where the technology interacts with biology to help resolve problems. Of course, the nanobots have to be compatible with the body (e.g. no poisonous elements if they were broken down, etc).

Continue reading “How nanobots and nanomedicine will improve our health” »

Oct 30, 2023

Extracellular Matrix-Based Biomaterials for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, chemistry, life extension

Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering strategies have made remarkable progress in remodeling, replacing, and regenerating damaged cardiovascular tissues. The design of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with appropriate biochemical and mechanical characteristics is critical for engineering tissue-engineered replacements. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic scaffolding structure characterized by tissue-specific biochemical, biophysical, and mechanical properties that modulates cellular behavior and activates highly regulated signaling pathways. In light of technological advancements, biomaterial-based scaffolds have been developed that better mimic physiological ECM properties, provide signaling cues that modulate cellular behavior, and form functional tissues and organs.

Oct 29, 2023

OpenAI forms new team to assess “catastrophic risks” of AI

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, cybercrime/malcode, robotics/AI

OpenAI’s new preparedness team will address the potential dangers associated with AI, including nuclear threats.

OpenAI is forming a new team to mitigate the “catastrophic risks” associated with AI. In an update on Thursday.

The team will also work to mitigate “chemical, biological, and radiological threats,” as well as “autonomous replication,” or the act of an AI replicating itself. Some other risks that the preparedness team will address include AI’s ability to trick humans, as well as cybersecurity threats.

Continue reading “OpenAI forms new team to assess ‘catastrophic risks’ of AI” »

Oct 28, 2023

Slow-moving quasiparticles make the fastest semiconductor in the world

Posted by in categories: chemistry, computing, mobile phones, transportation

It could improve limits on information transfer speed but is made of a super expensive ingredient that might make it financially infeasible.

Researchers at Columbia University in the US have developed the fastest and most efficient superconductor that works at room temperature, a press release said. The superconductor is made of superatomic material only known by its chemical formula, Re6Se8Cl2.

In a short span of time, silicon has become an integral part of most modern-day equipment ranging from cell phones to cars, computers to smart homes. However, scientists have found that silicon will soon reach its limits. This is because of the atomic structure of the semiconductor.

Oct 27, 2023

Adapting Ritalin to tackle cocaine abuse

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, health, neuroscience

Cocaine use continues to be a public health problem, yet despite concerted efforts, no drugs have been approved to resolve cocaine addiction. Research suggests that the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) could serve as a cocaine-replacement therapy, but clinical results have been mixed. Although several labs have produced MPH derivatives for testing, parts of the molecule remained chemically inaccessible. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Central Science have cleared that hurdle.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 5 million Americans reported actively using cocaine in 2020, and almost 25,000 Americans died of a cocaine-related overdose in 2021. Although small-molecule drugs have proven effective in treating other drug addictions—for example, methadone as a therapy for heroin abuse—no such medication exists for cocaine abuse.

MPH has been considered a potential treatment because it behaves similarly to the illicit drug, increasing dopamine levels in the brain by blocking dopamine reuptake. Additionally, have shown that MPH has a lower risk of abuse than cocaine.

Oct 26, 2023

JWST captures immense, rare explosion

Posted by in categories: chemistry, space

In March of this year, astronomers detected a brilliant burst of gamma rays more than a million times more luminous than our entire galaxy. It was the second brightest gamma-ray burst (GRB) ever detected and lasted some 200 seconds.

A study published today in Nature reports that this object was a collision of neutron stars one million light-years distant. What’s more, thanks to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), astronomers were able to see that the blast also served as a cosmic chemical factory, forging some of the rarest chemicals found on Earth.

“The most robust evidence that the merger of two neutron stars caused this burst comes from its kilonova,” says lead author Andrew Levan of Radboud University in the Netherlands, referring to the optical and infrared light coming from the uber-sized explosion.

Oct 25, 2023

Physics has long failed to explain life — but we’re testing a groundbreaking new theory in the lab

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry

Modern physics can explain everything from the spin of the tiniest particle to the behaviour of entire galaxy clusters. But it can’t explain life. There’s simply no formula to explain the difference between a living lump of matter and a dead one. Life seems to just mysteriously “emerge” from non-living parts, such as elementary particles.

Assembly theory is a bold new approach to explaining life on a fundamental scale, with its framework recently published in Nature. It assumes that complexity and information (such as DNA) are at the heart of it. The theory provides a a way to understand how these concepts emerge in chemical systems.

Emergence is a word physicists use to explain something that is bigger than the sum of its parts – such as how water can feel wet when individual water molecules don’t. Wetness is an emergent property.

Oct 24, 2023

Norepinephrine Chemistry’s Electrical Signals Tracked in Conscious Human Brains

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, health, neuroscience

The results of a human study carried out by an international research team have provided valuable new insights into the activity of the brain’s noradrenaline (NA) system, which has been a longtime target for medications to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, and anxiety. The study employed what the researchers claim is a groundbreaking methodology, developed to record real-time chemical activity from standard clinical electrodes implanted into the brain routinely for epilepsy monitoring.

The results offer up new insights into brain chemistry, which could have implications for a wide array of medical conditions, and also demonstrate use of the new strategy for acquiring data from the living human brain.

“Our group is describing the first ‘fast’ neurochemistry recorded by voltammetry from conscious humans,” said Read Montague, PhD, the VTC Vernon Mountcastle research professor at Virginia Tech, and director of the Center for Human Neuroscience Research and the Human Neuroimaging Laboratory of the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at VTC. “This is a big step forward and the methodological approach was implemented completely in humans – after more than 11 years of extensive development.” Montague is senior, and co-corresponding author of the researchers’ published paper in Current Biology, which is titled “Noradrenaline tracks emotional modulation of attention in human amygdala.” In their paper the authors concluded, “By showing that neuromodulator estimates can be obtained from depth electrodes already in standard clinical use in the conscious human brain, our study opens the door to a new area of research on the neuromodulatory basis of human health and disease.”

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