Archive for the ‘physics’ category: Page 4

Aug 21, 2019

Mathematical framework turns any sheet of material into any shape using kirigami cuts

Posted by in categories: biological, information science, mathematics, physics, transportation

This could lead to self-healing cars.

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a mathematical framework that can turn any sheet of material into any prescribed shape, inspired by the paper craft termed kirigami (from the Japanese, kiri, meaning to cut and kami, meaning paper).

Unlike its better-known cousin origami, which uses folds to shape , kirigami relies on a pattern of cuts in a flat paper sheet to change its flexibility and allow it to morph into 3D shapes. Artists have long used this artform to create everything from pop-up cards to castles and dragons.

Continue reading “Mathematical framework turns any sheet of material into any shape using kirigami cuts” »

Aug 21, 2019

A 127-year-old physics riddle solved

Posted by in categories: computing, engineering, physics

He solved a 127-year-old physics problem on paper and proved that off-centered boat wakes could exist. Five years later, practical experiments proved him right.

“Seeing the pictures appear on the computer screen was the best day at work I’ve ever had,” says Simen Ådnøy Ellingsen, an associate professor at NTNU’s Department of Energy and Process Engineering.

That was the day that Ph.D. candidate Benjamin Keeler Smeltzer and master’s student Eirik Æsøy had shown in the lab that Ellingsen was right and sent him the photos from the experiment. Five years ago, Ellingsen had challenged accepted knowledge from 1887, armed with a pen and paper, and won.

Aug 21, 2019

Black hole gobbles up neutron star, causing ripples in space and time

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

In the same decade when gravitational waves and a neutron star merger have been observed, astronomers have now observed what they believe to be the first detection of a black hole swallowing a neutron star.

Last Wednesday, gravitational wave detectors in Italy and the US, called LIGO and Virgo, detected telltale ripples in space and time, traced to an event that happened 8,550 million trillion kilometers away from Earth.

Astronomers are analyzing the data from the detection to confirm the size of the two objects that came together to form such cataclysmic ripples, but the event is likely a black hole eating a neutron star.

Aug 21, 2019

With open data, scientists share their work

Posted by in categories: computing, cosmology, physics

Cranmer is a member of ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments that, among other things, co-discovered the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. He and other CERN researchers recently published a letter in Nature Physics titled “Open is not enough,” which shares lessons learned about providing open data in high-energy physics. The CERN Open Data Portal, which facilitates public access of datasets from CERN experiments, now contains more than two petabytes of information.

It could be said that astronomy, one of the oldest sciences, was one of the first fields to have open data. The open records of Chinese astronomers from 1054 A.D. allowed astronomer Carlo Otto Lampland to identify the Crab Nebula as the remnant of a supernova in 1921. In 1705 Edward Halley used the previous observations of Johannes Kepler and Petrus Apianus—who did their work before Halley was old enough to use a telescope—to deduce the orbit of his eponymous comet.

In science, making data open means making available, free of charge, the observations or other information collected in a scientific study for the purpose of allowing other researchers to examine it for themselves, either to verify it or to conduct new analyses.

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Aug 19, 2019

The physics of cell-size regulation across timescales

Posted by in categories: biological, physics

The size of a cell is determined by a combination of synthesis, self-assembly, incoming matter and the balance of mechanical forces. Such processes operate at the single-cell level, but they are deeply interconnected with cell-cycle progression, resulting in a stable average cell size at the population level. Here, we examine this phenomenon by reviewing the physics of growth processes that operate at vastly different timescales, but result in the controlled production of daughter cells that are close copies of their mothers. We first review the regulatory mechanisms of size at short timescales, focusing on the contribution of fundamental physical forces. We then discuss the multiple relevant regulation processes operating on the timescale of the cell cycle. Finally, we look at how these processes interact: one of the most important challenges to date involves bridging the gap between timescales, connecting the physics of cell growth and the biology of cell-cycle progression.

Aug 17, 2019

Future of Physics

Posted by in categories: neuroscience, physics, time travel

Great discuss of time travel by Dr. Brain greene.

Aug 17, 2019

Physicists solve 2,000-year-old optical problem

Posted by in categories: mathematics, physics, robotics/AI

A trio of physicists from the National Autonomous University of Mexico and Tec de Monterrey has solved a 2,000-year-old optical problem—the Wasserman-Wolf problem. In their paper published in the journal Applied Optics, Rafael González-Acuña, Héctor Chaparro-Romo, and Julio Gutiérrez-Vega outline the math involved in solving the puzzle, give some examples of possible applications, and describe the efficiency of the results when tested.

Over 2,000 years ago, Greek scientist Diocles recognized a problem with —when looking through devices equipped with them, the edges appeared fuzzier than the center. In his writings, he proposed that the effect occurs because the lenses were spherical—light striking at an angle could not be focused because of differences in refraction. Isaac Newton was reportedly stumped in his efforts to solve the problem (which became known as ), as was Gottfried Leibniz.

In 1949, Wasserman and Wolf devised an analytical means for describing the problem, and gave it an official name—the Wasserman-Wolf problem. They suggested that the to solving the problem would be to use two aspheric adjacent surfaces to correct aberrations. Since that time, researchers and engineers have come up with a variety of ways to fix the problem in specific applications—most particularly cameras and telescopes. Most such efforts have involved creating aspherical lenses to counteract refraction problems. And while they have resulted in improvement, the solutions have generally been expensive and inadequate for some applications.

Aug 15, 2019

LIGO and Virgo probably spotted the first black hole swallowing up a neutron star

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

BIG GULP Gravitational waves may have revealed a black hole in the process of swallowing up a neutron star (illustrated). If confirmed, the event would be the first of its kind ever seen.

Aug 15, 2019

Time travel PROOF: Physicist says ‘it’s POSSIBLE’ and THIS is how you do it

Posted by in categories: physics, time travel

The prospect of reliving a past moment from Earth’s amazing history or skipping ahead of the future is a tantalising idea widely present in science fiction. But physicists who spend their days pondering the mysteries of time and space believe might be within the realm of possibility. This does not mean scientists will develop TARDIS-like time travel machines straight out of Dr Who any time soon. Instead, the theoretical and physical frameworks are there to show moving forward in time can be achieved – with a small catch.

Aug 14, 2019

Light can scatter from light, CERN physicists confirm

Posted by in categories: innovation, physics

Physics World represents a key part of IOP Publishing’s mission to communicate world-class research and innovation to the widest possible audience. The website forms part of the Physics World portfolio, a collection of online, digital and print information services for the global scientific community.

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