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Archive for the ‘information science’ category: Page 7

May 14, 2022

Xanadu announces programmable photonic quantum chip able to execute multiple algorithms

Posted by in categories: computing, information science, quantum physics

A team of researchers and engineers at Canadian company Xanadu Quantum Technologies Inc., working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the U.S., has developed a programmable, scalable photonic quantum chip that can execute multiple algorithms. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes how they made their chip, its characteristics and how it can be used. Ulrik Andersen with the Technical University of Denmark has published a News & Views piece in the same journal issue outlining current research on quantum computers and the work by the team in Canada.

Scientists around the world are working to build a truly useful quantum that can perform calculations that would take traditional computers millions of years to carry out. To date, most such efforts have been focused on two main architectures—those based on superconducting electrical circuits and those based on trapped-ion technology. Both have their advantages and disadvantages, and both must operate in a supercooled environment, making them difficult to scale up. Receiving less attention is work using a photonics-based approach to building a quantum computer. Such an approach has been seen as less feasible because of the problems inherent in generating quantum states and also of transforming such states on demand. One big advantage photonics-based systems would have over the other two architectures is that they would not have to be chilled—they could work at room temperature.

In this new effort, the group at Xanadu has overcome some of the problems associated with photonics-based systems and created a working programmable photonic quantum chip that can execute multiple algorithms and can also be scaled up. They have named it the X8 photonic quantum processing unit. During operation, the is connected to what the team at Xanadu describe as a “squeezed light” source—infrared laser pulses working with microscopic resonators. This is because the new system performs continuous variable quantum computing rather than using single-photon generators.

May 13, 2022

New Microscope Technique Powerful Enough to Watch Atoms Vibrate

Posted by in categories: information science, particle physics

A team of Cornell University engineers developed a new microscopy technique that’s powerful enough to spot an individual atom in three dimensions — and create an image so clear that the only blurriness comes from the movement of that atom itself.

The technique, which according to the study published Thursday in the journal Science relies on an electron microscope coupled with sophisticated 3D reconstruction algorithms, doesn’t just set a new record in atom resolution. The researchers even say this might be as good as microscopy gets.

“This doesn’t just set a new record,” lead author and Cornell engineer David Muller said in a press release. “It’s reached a regime which is effectively going to be an ultimate limit for resolution. We basically can now figure out where the atoms are in a very easy way. This opens up a whole lot of new measurement possibilities of things we’ve wanted to do for a very long time.”

May 13, 2022

Mathematicians Coax Fluid Equations Into Nonphysical Solutions

Posted by in categories: information science, mathematics

The famed Navier-Stokes equations can lead to cases where more than one result is possible, but only in an extremely narrow set of situations.

May 11, 2022

MICrONS: The MICrONS program aims to close the performance gap between human analysts and automated pattern recognition systems by reverse-engineering the algorithms of the brain

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Summary

The human brain has the, remarkable ability to learn patterns from small amounts of data and then recognize novel instances of those patterns despite distortion and noise. Although advances in machine learning algorithms have been weakly informed by the brain since the 1940’s, they do not yet rival human performance.

May 11, 2022

Gravity signals could detect earthquakes at the speed of light

Posted by in categories: climatology, computing, information science, physics

Algorithm set for deployment in Japan could identify giant temblors faster and more reliably.


Two minutes after the world’s biggest tectonic plate shuddered off the coast of Japan, the country’s meteorological agency issued its final warning to about 50 million residents: A magnitude 8.1 earthquake had generated a tsunami that was headed for shore. But it wasn’t until hours after the waves arrived that experts gauged the true size of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku quake. Ultimately, it rang in at a magnitude 9—releasing more than 22 times the energy experts predicted and leaving at least 18,000 dead, some in areas that never received the alert. Now, scientists have found a way to get more accurate size estimates faster, by using computer algorithms to identify the wake from gravitational waves that shoot from the fault at the speed of light.

“This is a completely new [way to recognize] large-magnitude earthquakes,” says Richard Allen, a seismologist at the University of California, Berkeley, who was not involved in the study. “If we were to implement this algorithm, we’d have that much more confidence that this is a really big earthquake, and we could push that alert out over a much larger area sooner.”

Continue reading “Gravity signals could detect earthquakes at the speed of light” »

May 11, 2022

Intelligent AI-Empowered Metasurface Could Revolutionize Our Lives

Posted by in categories: holograms, information science, robotics/AI

The manipulation of electromagnetic waves and information has become an important part of our everyday lives. Intelligent metasurfaces have emerged as smart platforms for automating the control of wave-information-matter interactions without manual intervention. They evolved from engineered composite materials, including metamaterials and metasurfaces. As a society, we have seen significant progress in the development of metamaterials and metasurfaces of various forms and properties.

In a paper published in the journal eLight on May 6, 2022, Professor Tie Jun Cui of Southeast University and Professor Lianlin Li of Peking University led a research team to review intelligent metasurfaces. “Intelligent metasurfaces: Control, Communication and Computing” investigated the development of intelligent metasurfaces with an eye for the future.

This field has refreshed human insights into many fundamental laws. They have unlocked many novel devices and systems, like cloaking, tunneling, and holograms. Conventional structure-alone or passive metasurfaces has moved towards intelligent metasurfaces by integrating algorithms and nonlinear materials (or active devices).

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May 10, 2022

‘Machine Scientists’ Distill the Laws of Physics From Raw Data

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, food, genetics, information science, robotics/AI

The latest “machine scientist” algorithms can take in data on dark matter, dividing cells, turbulence, and other situations too complicated for humans to understand and provide an equation capturing the essence of what’s going on.


Despite rediscovering Kepler’s third law and other textbook classics, BACON remained something of a curiosity in an era of limited computing power. Researchers still had to analyze most data sets by hand, or eventually with Excel-like software that found the best fit for a simple data set when given a specific class of equation. The notion that an algorithm could find the correct model for describing any data set lay dormant until 2009, when Lipson and Michael Schmidt, roboticists then at Cornell University, developed an algorithm called Eureqa.

Their main goal had been to build a machine that could boil down expansive data sets with column after column of variables to an equation involving the few variables that actually matter. “The equation might end up having four variables, but you don’t know in advance which ones,” Lipson said. “You throw at it everything and the kitchen sink. Maybe the weather is important. Maybe the number of dentists per square mile is important.”

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May 6, 2022

Meta wants to improve its AI

Posted by in categories: biological, information science, robotics/AI

Would start with scanning and reverse engineering brains of rats, crows, pigs, chimps, and end on the human brain. Aim for completion by 12/31/2025. Set up teams to run brain scans 24÷7÷365 if we need to, and partner w/ every major neuroscience lab in the world.


If artificial intelligence is intended to resemble a brain, with networks of artificial neurons substituting for real cells, then what would happen if you compared the activities in deep learning algorithms to those in a human brain? Last week, researchers from Meta AI announced that they would be partnering with neuroimaging center Neurospin (CEA) and INRIA to try to do just that.

Through this collaboration, they’re planning to analyze human brain activity and deep learning algorithms trained on language or speech tasks in response to the same written or spoken texts. In theory, it could decode both how human brains —and artificial brains—find meaning in language.

Continue reading “Meta wants to improve its AI” »

May 5, 2022

China developed a drone swarm that can fly effortlessly through an entire forest

Posted by in categories: drones, information science

May 5, 2022

What is Quantum Machine Learning? Applications of Quantum Machine Learning

Posted by in categories: information science, quantum physics, robotics/AI

Quantum machine learning is a field of study that investigates the interaction of concepts from quantum computing with machine learning.

For example, we would wish to see if quantum computers can reduce the amount of time it takes to train or assess a machine learning model. On the other hand, we may use machine learning approaches to discover quantum error-correcting algorithms, estimate the features of quantum systems, and create novel quantum algorithms.

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