Archive for the ‘information science’ category: Page 5

Dec 17, 2019

New tool reveals DNA structures that influence disease

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, information science

Disruption of certain DNA structures—called topologically associating domains, or TADs—is linked with the development of disease, including some cancers. With its newly created algorithm that quickly locates and helps elucidate the complex functions of TADs, an international team of researchers is making it easier to study these important structures and help prevent disease.

“On your DNA you have and regulatory elements—such as promotors and enhancers—that , but these two things can be far away from each other,” said Qunhua Li, associate professor of statistics, Penn State. “Similar to a dresser drawer that keeps your clothes organized and available for use, TADs bring genes together with their regulatory elements, which enables them to begin the process of gene expression.”

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in DNA gives rise to observable traits.

Dec 17, 2019

AI super resolution lets you “zoom and enhance” in Pixelmator Pro

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Machine learning and AI can now restore lost detail to blurry images. Many companies and labs have created such “super resolution” algorithms, but this software is now becoming commercially available, too. Pixelmator Pro is among the first image editors to offer such a tool.

Dec 16, 2019

AI is outpacing Moore’s Law

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

In 1965, American engineer Gordon Moore made the prediction that the number of transistors integrated on a silicon chip doubles every two years or so. This has proven to be true to this day, allowing software developers to double the performance of their applications. However, the performance of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms seems to have outpaced Moore’s Law.

According to a new report produced by Stanford University, AI computational power is accelerating at a much higher rate than the development of processor chips.

“Prior to 2012, AI results closely tracked Moore’s Law, with compute doubling every two years,” the authors of the report wrote. “Post-2012, compute has been doubling every 3.4 months.”

Dec 15, 2019

A robot read 3.5 million books to see how we describe men and women differently

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

About AI bias.

Yet AI bias is by itself a biased term, as if the machine/algorithm were to blame for human bias and/or an incorrect data set.

Dec 12, 2019

AI-driven robots are making new materials, improving solar cells and other technologies

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI, solar power, sustainability

Decision-making algorithms transform how automated systems evaluate and synthesize novel compounds.

Dec 11, 2019

Cheers! Maxwell’s electromagnetism extended to smaller scales

Posted by in categories: information science, nanotechnology

On Dec. 11, 2019, a general framework for incorporating and correcting for nonclassical electromagnetic phenomena in nanoscale systems will be presented in the journal Nature.

More than 150 years have passed since the publication of James Clerk Maxwell’s “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” (1865). His treatise revolutionized the fundamental understanding of electric fields, magnetic fields and light. The 20 original equations (elegantly reduced to four today), their boundary conditions at interfaces, and the bulk electronic response functions (dielectric permitivity and magnetic permeability) are at the root of the ability to manipulate electromagnetic fields and light.

Life without Maxwell’s equations would lack most current science, communications and technology.

Dec 9, 2019

Ultrasound destroys 80 percent of prostate cancers in one-year study

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, information science

Treating prostate cancer through traditional means such as surgery or radiotherapy carries certain risks, with some patients experiencing impotence, urinary problems and bowel trouble, among other unwanted side effects. Safer and less invasive treatment options could soon be on the table, however, including a novel MRI-guided ultrasound technique that eliminated significant cancers in 80 percent of subjects in a year-long study.

The new technique is called MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound ablation (TULSA) and has been under development for a number of years. The minimally invasive technology involves a rod that enters the prostate gland via the urethra and emits highly controlled sound waves in order to heat and destroy diseased tissue, while leaving healthy tissue unharmed.

Continue reading “Ultrasound destroys 80 percent of prostate cancers in one-year study” »

Dec 7, 2019

Mathematician Finds Easier Way to Solve Quadratic Equations

Posted by in categories: energy, information science, mathematics

Quadratic equations are polynomials, meaning strings of math terms. An expression like “x + 4” is a polynomial. They can have one or many variables in any combination, and the magnitude of them is decided by what power the variables are taken to. So x + 4 is an expression describing a straight line, but (x + 4)² is a curve. Since a line crosses just once through any particular latitude or longitude, its solution is just one value. If you have x², that means two root values, in a shape like a circle or arc that makes two crossings.

Dec 4, 2019

The rise, disappearance, and retirement of Google co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin

Posted by in category: information science

Larry Page and Sergey Brin founded Google in 1996 on the back of an algorithm, turned it into one of the most valuable companies in the world, and have now given up their leadership roles three times — even though they’ve always retained a controlling interest in the company behind the scenes. Here’s a timeline of their most important moments in Google and Alphabet history.

Dec 3, 2019

A quantum origin for spacetime

Posted by in categories: information science, quantum physics

Physicists find hints that entanglement explains Einstein’s equations for gravity.

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