Archive for the ‘information science’ category: Page 5

Aug 3, 2020

DeepMind releases Acme, a distributed framework for reinforcement learning algorithm development

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI, transportation

DeepMind this week released Acme, a framework intended to simplify the development of reinforcement learning algorithms by enabling AI-driven agents to run at various scales of execution. According to the engineers and researchers behind Acme, who coauthored a technical paper on the work, it can be used to create agents with greater parallelization than in previous approaches.

Reinforcement learning involves agents that interact with an environment to generate their own training data, and it’s led to breakthroughs in fields from video games and robotics to self-driving robo-taxis. Recent advances are partly attributable to increases in the amount of training data used, which has motivated the design of systems where agents interact with instances of an environment to quickly accumulate experience. This scaling from single-process prototypes of algorithms to distributed systems often requires a reimplementation of the agents in question, DeepMind asserts, which is where the Acme framework comes in.

Aug 1, 2020

Surprisingly Recent Galaxy Discovered Using Machine Learning – May Be the Last Generation Galaxy in the Long Cosmic History

Posted by in categories: cosmology, information science, robotics/AI

Breaking the lowest oxygen abundance record.

New results achieved by combining big data captured by the Subaru Telescope and the power of machine learning have discovered a galaxy with an extremely low oxygen abundance of 1.6% solar abundance, breaking the previous record of the lowest oxygen abundance. The measured oxygen abundance suggests that most of the stars in this galaxy formed very recently.

Continue reading “Surprisingly Recent Galaxy Discovered Using Machine Learning – May Be the Last Generation Galaxy in the Long Cosmic History” »

Aug 1, 2020

Quantum machines learn ‘quantum data’

Posted by in categories: information science, quantum physics, robotics/AI, supercomputing

Skoltech scientists have shown that quantum enhanced machine learning can be used on quantum (as opposed to classical) data, overcoming a significant slowdown common to these applications and opening a “fertile ground to develop computational insights into quantum systems.” The paper was published in the journal Physical Review A.

Quantum computers utilize quantum mechanical effects to store and manipulate information. While quantum effects are often claimed to be counterintuitive, such effects will enable quantum enhanced calculations to dramatically outperform the best supercomputers. In 2019, the world saw a prototype of this demonstrated by Google as quantum computational superiority.

Quantum algorithms have been developed to enhance a range of different computational tasks; more recently this has grown to include quantum enhanced machine learning. Quantum machine learning was partly pioneered by Skoltech’s resident-based Laboratory for Quantum Information Processing, led by Jacob Biamonte, a coathor of this paper. “Machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is not surprising that quantum computers might outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks,” he says.

Jul 31, 2020

Episode 9 — How ESA’s GAIA Satellite Is Revolutionizing Our Understanding of the Milky Way

Posted by in categories: information science, satellites

Fascinating interview with Dutch astronomer Anthony Brown on ESA’s Gaia satellite and what it’s telling us about our own Milky Way Galaxy.

Dutch astronomer Anthony Brown of Leiden University explains how the European Space Agency’s GAIA satellite is revolutionizing what we know about the Milky Way. This all-sky survey mission revisits each target 70 times over the course of the years-long mission to give astronomers a real 3D map of a large swath of our galaxy. The next big data drop is scheduled by year’s end.

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Jul 30, 2020

AI can spot prostate cancer with almost 100% accuracy

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, information science, robotics/AI

A new AI algorithm developed by the University of Pittsburgh has achieved the highest accuracy to date in identifying prostate cancer, with 98% sensitivity and 97% specificity.

Jul 29, 2020

Solving materials problems with a quantum computer

Posted by in categories: chemistry, engineering, information science, particle physics, quantum physics, supercomputing

Quantum computers have enormous potential for calculations using novel algorithms and involving amounts of data far beyond the capacity of today’s supercomputers. While such computers have been built, they are still in their infancy and have limited applicability for solving complex problems in materials science and chemistry. For example, they only permit the simulation of the properties of a few atoms for materials research.

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago (UChicago) have developed a method paving the way to using quantum computers to simulate realistic molecules and complex materials, whose description requires hundreds of atoms.

The research team is led by Giulia Galli, director of the Midwest Integrated Center for Computational Materials (MICCoM), a group leader in Argonne’s Materials Science division and a member of the Center for Molecular Engineering at Argonne. Galli is also the Liew Family Professor of Electronic Structure and Simulations in the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering and a Professor of Chemistry at UChicago. She worked on this project with assistant scientist Marco Govoni and graduate student He Ma, both part of Argonne’s Materials Science division and UChicago.

Jul 28, 2020

Machine learning predicts satisfaction in romantic relationships

Posted by in categories: health, information science, robotics/AI

The most reliable predictor of a relationship’s success is partners’ belief that the other person is fully committed, a Western University-led international research team has found.

Other in a successful include feeling close to, appreciated by, and sexually satisfied with your partner, says the study—the first-ever systematic attempt at using machine-learning algorithms to predict people’s relationship satisfaction.

“Satisfaction with has important implications for health, wellbeing and work productivity,” Western Psychology professor Samantha Joel said. “But research on predictors of relationship quality is often limited in scope and scale, and carried out separately in individual laboratories.”

Jul 27, 2020

Artificial Intelligence Identifies Prostate Cancer With Near-Perfect Accuracy

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health, information science, robotics/AI

A study published today (July 27, 2020) in The Lancet Digital Health by UPMC and University of Pittsburgh researchers demonstrates the highest accuracy to date in recognizing and characterizing prostate cancer using an artificial intelligence (AI) program.

“Humans are good at recognizing anomalies, but they have their own biases or past experience,” said senior author Rajiv Dhir, M.D., M.B.A., chief pathologist and vice chair of pathology at UPMC Shadyside and professor of biomedical informatics at Pitt. “Machines are detached from the whole story. There’s definitely an element of standardizing care.”

To train the AI to recognize prostate cancer, Dhir and his colleagues provided images from more than a million parts of stained tissue slides taken from patient biopsies. Each image was labeled by expert pathologists to teach the AI how to discriminate between healthy and abnormal tissue. The algorithm was then tested on a separate set of 1,600 slides taken from 100 consecutive patients seen at UPMC for suspected prostate cancer.

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Jul 26, 2020

DeepMind’s Newest AI Programs Itself to Make All the Right Decisions

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

In a new paper, DeepMind describes an AI algorithm that was able to discover a critical programming rule in deep reinforcement learning from scratch.

Jul 25, 2020

Understanding and coding Neural Networks From Scratch in Python and R

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Note: This article was originally published on May 29, 2017, and updated on July 24, 2020 Overview Neural Networks is one of the most popular machine learning algorithms Gradient Descent forms the basis of Neural networks Neural networks can be implemented in both R and Python using certain libraries and packages.

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