Archive for the ‘information science’ category: Page 4

May 8, 2019

Wireless movement-tracking system could collect health and behavioral data

Posted by in categories: health, information science

We live in a world of wireless signals flowing around us and bouncing off our bodies. MIT researchers are now leveraging those signal reflections to provide scientists and caregivers with valuable insights into people’s behavior and health.

The system, called Marko, transmits a low-power radio-frequency (RF) signal into an environment. The signal will return to the system with certain changes if it has bounced off a moving human. Novel algorithms then analyze those changed reflections and associate them with specific individuals.

The system then traces each individual’s movement around a digital floor plan. Matching these movement patterns with other data can provide insights about how people interact with each other and the environment.

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May 6, 2019

AI can detect depression in a child’s speech

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health, information science, robotics/AI

A machine learning algorithm can detect signs of anxiety and depression in the speech patterns of young children, potentially providing a fast and easy way of diagnosing conditions that are difficult to spot and often overlooked in young people, according to new research published in the Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics.

Around one in five suffer from anxiety and depression, collectively known as “internalizing disorders.” But because children under the age of eight can’t reliably articulate their emotional suffering, adults need to be able to infer their mental state, and recognise potential mental health problems. Waiting lists for appointments with psychologists, insurance issues, and failure to recognise the symptoms by parents all contribute to children missing out on vital treatment.

“We need quick, objective tests to catch kids when they are suffering,” says Ellen McGinnis, a at the University of Vermont Medical Center’s Vermont Center for Children, Youth and Families and lead author of the study. “The majority of kids under eight are undiagnosed.”

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May 6, 2019

Algorithms help spot cancer ‘lottery winners’ in new Fred Hutch study

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, information science, robotics/AI

For most patients, a diagnosis of stage 4 non-small cell lung cancer comes with a dire prognosis. But for patients with specific mutations that cause the disease, there are potentially life-saving therapies.

The problem is that these mutations, known as ALK and EGFR, are not always identified in patients — meaning they never get the treatment.

A new study from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle used machine learning to find these needle-in-a-haystack patients. The idea was to leverage cancer databases to see if patients were being tested for the mutations and receiving these personalized treatments.

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May 2, 2019

AI Evolved These Creepy Images to Please a Monkey’s Brain

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

So why not ask the neurons what they want to see?

Read: The human remembering machine

That was the idea behind XDREAM, an algorithm dreamed up by a Harvard student named Will Xiao. Sets of those gray, formless images, 40 in all, were shown to watching monkeys, and the algorithm tweaked and shuffled those that provoked the strongest responses in chosen neurons to create a new generation of pics. Xiao had previously trained XDREAM using 1.4 million real-world photos so that it would generate synthetic images with the properties of natural ones. Over 250 such generations, the synthetic images became more and more effective, until they were exciting their target neurons far more intensely than any natural image. “It was exciting to finally let a cell tell us what it’s encoding instead of having to guess,” says Ponce, who is now at Washington University in St. Louis.

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May 2, 2019

DQN: This paper published in Nature on 26th February 2015

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

This paper published in Nature on 26th February 2015, describes a DeepRL system which combines Deep Neural Networks with Reinforcement Learning at scale for the first time, and is able to master a diverse range of Atari 2600 games to superhuman level with only the raw pixels and score as inputs.

For artificial agents to be considered truly intelligent they should excel at a wide variety of tasks that are considered challenging for humans. Until this point, it had only been possible to create individual algorithms capable of mastering a single specific domain. With our algorithm, we leveraged recent breakthroughs in training deep neural networks to show that a novel end-to-end reinforcement learning agent, termed a deep Q-network (DQN), was able to surpass the overall performance of a professional human reference player and all previous agents across a diverse range of 49 game scenarios.

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May 2, 2019

How automation is enabling modern problem-solving

Posted by in categories: information science, mathematics, robotics/AI

With the possibility of millions or an infinite number of problems automating everything will cause all things to be solved digitally into a simple math problem. The problems could essentially be hacked by shores algorithm or maybe a theory of everything like m theory or Stephen Hawking’s theory of everything. Maybe it is just as simple as a basic formula like Einstein created E=mc2. Also like some mathematicians have theorized maybe just one line of code that solves everything.

Automation is a game-changer for modern problem-solving – enabling not only visibility to real-time operations but the ability to effectively project the impact of potential solutions into the future. As problem-solvers become more comfortable using the new tools available to them, companies will be able to effectively isolate (and avoid) the impact of problems to their operations and focus their resources on solving the underlying issues and enabling long-term success. Learn More here.

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May 2, 2019

Using computers to crack open centuries-old mathematical puzzles

Posted by in categories: computing, information science, mathematics

Andrew Wiles’ proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem is a famous example. Pierre de Fermat claimed in 1637 – in the margin of a copy of “Arithmetica,” no less – to have solved the Diophantine equation xⁿ + yⁿ = zⁿ, but offered no justification. When Wiles proved it over 300 years later, mathematicians immediately took notice. If Wiles had developed a new idea that could solve Fermat, then what else could that idea do? Number theorists raced to understand Wiles’ methods, generalizing them and finding new consequences.

No single method exists that can solve all Diophantine equations. Instead, mathematicians cultivate various techniques, each suited for certain types of Diophantine problems but not others. So mathematicians classify these problems by their features or complexity, much like biologists might classify species by taxonomy.

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Apr 30, 2019

New approach predicts glass’ always-evolving behaviors at different temperatures

Posted by in categories: information science, particle physics

Not everything about glass is clear. How its atoms are arranged and behave, in particular, is startlingly opaque.

The problem is that glass is an amorphous solid, a class of materials that lies in the mysterious realm between solid and liquid. Glassy materials also include polymers, or commonly used plastics. While it might appear to be stable and static, glass’ atoms are constantly shuffling in a frustratingly futile search for equilibrium. This shifty behavior has made the physics of glass nearly impossible for researchers to pin down.

Now a multi-institutional team including Northwestern University, North Dakota State University and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has designed an algorithm with the goal of giving polymeric glasses a little more clarity. The algorithm makes it possible for researchers to create coarse-grained models to design materials with dynamic properties and predict their continually changing behaviors. Called the “energy renormalization algorithm,” it is the first to accurately predict glass’ mechanical behavior at and could result in the fast discovery of new materials, designed with optimal properties.

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Apr 29, 2019

PaintBot: A deep learning student that trains then mimics old masters

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI, transportation

Artificial intelligence has been showing us many ish tricks as apers of human-created art, and now a team of researchers have impressed AI watchers with PaintBot. They have managed to unleash their AI as a capable mimic of the old masters.

AI can deliver a Van Gogh–ish, Vermeer–ish, Turner–ish painting. The team, from the University of Maryland, the ByteDance AI Lab and Adobe Research, turned an algorithm into a mimic of the old masters.

“Through a coarse-to-fine refinement process our agent can paint arbitrarily complex images in the desired style.”

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Apr 28, 2019

Machine learning expands to help predict and characterize earthquakes

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

In a focus section published in the journal Seismological Research Letters, researchers describe how they are using machine learning methods to hone predictions of seismic activity, identify earthquake centers, characterize different types of seismic waves and distinguish seismic activity from other kinds of ground “noise.”

Machine learning refers to a set of algorithms and models that allow computers to identify and extract patterns of information from large data sets. Machine learning methods often discover these patterns from the data themselves, without reference to the real-world, physical mechanisms represented by the data. The methods have been used successfully on problems such as digital image and speech recognition, among other applications.

More seismologists are using the methods, driven by “the increasing size of seismic data sets, improvements in computational power, new algorithms and architecture and the availability of easy-to-use open source machine learning frameworks,” write focus section editors Karianne Bergen of Harvard University, Ting Cheng of Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Zefeng Li of Caltech.

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