Archive for the ‘information science’ category

Jul 24, 2024

New soiling detection method based on drones, AI, image processing

Posted by in categories: drones, information science, mathematics, robotics/AI

“Compared with other traditional methods, the proposed has lower computational complexity, faster operation speed, weak influence of light, and strong ability to locate dirt,” the research group said. “The improved path planning algorithm used in this study greatly improves the efficiency of UAV inspection, saves time and resources, reduces operation and maintenance costs, and improves the corresponding operation and maintenance level of photovoltaic power generation.”

The novel approach uses mathematical morphologies for image processing, such as image enhancement, sharpening, filtering, and closing operations. It also uses image histogram equalization and edge detection, among other methods, to find the dusted spot. For path optimization, it uses an improved version of the A (A-star) algorithm.

Jul 24, 2024

Quantum Advantage Challenged: IBM And IonQ Develop Faster Classical Simulation Algorithm

Posted by in categories: computing, information science, quantum physics

The quantum advantage, a key goal in quantum computation, is achieved when a quantum computer’s computational capability surpasses classical means. A recent study introduced a type of Instantaneous Quantum Polynomial-Time (IQP) computation, which was challenged by IBM Quantum and IonQ researchers who developed a faster classical simulation algorithm. IQP circuits are beneficial due to their simplicity and moderate hardware requirements, but they also allow for classical simulation. The IQP circuit, known as the HarvardQuEra circuit, is built over n 3m 32k inputs. There are two types of simulation for quantum computations: noiseless weak/direct and noisy.

The quantum advantage is a key goal for the quantum computation community. It is achieved when a quantum computer’s computational capability becomes so complex that it cannot be reproduced by classical means. This ongoing negotiation between classical simulations and quantum computational experiments is a significant focus in the field.

A recent publication by Bluvstein et al. introduced a type of Instantaneous Quantum Polynomial-Time (IQP) computation, complemented by a 48-qubit logical experimental demonstration using quantum hardware. The authors projected the simulation time to grow rapidly with the number of CNOT layers added. However, researchers from IBM Quantum and IonQ reported a classical simulation algorithm that computes an amplitude for the 48-qubit computation in only 0.00257947 seconds, which is roughly 103 times faster than that reported by the original authors. This algorithm is not subject to a significant decline in performance due to the additional CNOT layers.

Jul 24, 2024

SAQFT: Algebraic quantum field theory for elementary and composite particles

Posted by in categories: cosmology, information science, particle physics, quantum physics

Quantum field theory (QFT) was a crucial step in our understanding of the fundamental nature of the Universe. In its current form, however, it is poorly suited for describing composite particles, made up of multiple interacting elementary particles. Today, QFT for hadrons has been largely replaced with quantum chromodynamics, but this new framework still leaves many gaps in our understanding, particularly surrounding the nature of strong nuclear force and the origins of dark matter and dark energy. Through a new algebraic formulation of QFT, Dr Abdulaziz Alhaidari at the Saudi Center for Theoretical Physics hopes that these issues could finally be addressed.

The emergence of quantum field theory (QFT) was one of the most important developments in modern physics. By combining the theories of special relativity, quantum mechanics, and the interaction of matter via classical field equations, it provides robust explanations for many fundamental phenomena, including interactions between charged particles via the exchange of photons.

Still, QFT in its current form is far from flawless. Among its limitations is its inability to produce a precise description of composite particles such as hadrons, which are made up of multiple interacting elementary particles that are confined (cannot be observed in isolation). Since these particles possess an internal structure, the nature of these interactions becomes far more difficult to define mathematically, stretching the descriptive abilities of QFT beyond its limits.

Jul 23, 2024

Time Delays Improve Performance of Certain Neural Networks

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Both the predictive power and the memory storage capability of an artificial neural network called a reservoir computer increase when time delays are added into how the network processes signals, according to a new model.

A reservoir computer—a type of artificial neural network—can use information about a system’s past to predict the system’s future. Reservoir computers are far easier to train than their more general counterpart, recurrent neural networks. However, researchers have yet to develop a way to determine the optimal reservoir-computer construction for memorizing and forecasting the behavior a given system. Recently, Seyedkamyar Tavakoli and André Longtin of the University of Ottawa, Canada, took a step toward solving that problem by demonstrating a way to enhance the memory and prediction capabilities of a reservoir computer [1]. Their demonstration could, for example, allow researchers to make a chatbot or virtual assistant, such as ChatGPT, using a reservoir computer, a possibility that so far has been largely unexplored.

For those studying time-series-forecasting methods—those that can predict the future outcomes of complex systems using historical time-stamped data—the recurrent neural network is king [2]. Recurrent neural networks contain a “hidden state” that stores information about features of the system being modeled. The information in the hidden state is updated every time the network gains new information about the system and is then fed into an algorithm that is used to predict what will happen next to the system.

Jul 23, 2024

Learning quantum phases via single-qubit disentanglement

Posted by in categories: information science, quantum physics

Zheng An, Chenfeng Cao, Cheng-Qian Xu, and D. L. Zhou, Quantum 8, 1421 (2024). Identifying phases of matter presents considerable challenges, particularly within the domain of quantum theory, where the complexity of ground states appears to increase exponentially with system size. Quantum many-body systems exhibit an array of complex entanglement structures spanning distinct phases. Although extensive research has explored the relationship between quantum phase transitions and quantum entanglement, establishing a direct, pragmatic connection between them remains a critical challenge. In this work, we present a novel and efficient quantum phase transition classifier, utilizing disentanglement with reinforcement learning-optimized variational quantum circuits. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method on quantum phase transitions in the transverse field Ising model (TFIM) and the XXZ model. Moreover, we observe the algorithm’s ability to learn the Kramers-Wannier duality pertaining to entanglement structures in the TFIM. Our approach not only identifies phase transitions based on the performance of the disentangling circuits but also exhibits impressive scalability, facilitating its application in larger and more complex quantum systems. This study sheds light on the characterization of quantum phases through the entanglement structures inherent in quantum many-body systems.

Jul 21, 2024

Riverlane Discloses Its Quantum Error Correction Roadmap Through 2026

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, computing, employment, information science, quantum physics

Implementing error correction in a quantum computer requires putting together a lot of different things. Of course, you want to start with good physical qubits that have as low a physical error rate that you can achieve. You want to add in an error correction algorithm, like the surface code, color code, q-LDPC, or others that can be implemented in your architecture, and you need a fast real time error decoder that can look at the circuit output and very quickly determine what the error is so it can be corrected. The error decoder portion doesn’t get as much attention in the media as the other things, but it is a very critical portion of the solution. Riverlane is concentrating on providing products for this with a series of solutions they name Deltaflow which consists of both a classical ASIC chip along with software. The Deltaflow solution consists of a powerful error decoding layer for identifying errors and sending back corrective instructions, a universal interface that communicates with the computer;s control system, and a orchestration layer for coordinating activities.

Riverlane has released its Deltaflow Error Correction Stack Roadmap that show yearly updates to the technology to support an increase in the number of QuOps (error free Quantum Operations) by 10X every year. We reported last year on a chip called DD1 that is part of their Deltaflow 1 solution that is capable of supporting 1,000 QuOps using a surface code error correction algorithm. And now, Riverlane is defining solutions that will achieve 10,000 QuOps with Deltaflow 2 later this year, 100,000 QuOps with Deltaflow 3 in 2025, and 1,000,000 QuOps, also called MegaQuops in 2026, with their Deltaflow Mega solution.

One characteristic that Riverlane is emphasizing in these designs is to perform the decoding in real time in order to keep the latencies low. Although it is fine for an academic paper to send the ancilla data off to a classical computer and have it determine the error, it might take milliseconds for the operation to complete. That won’t cut it in a production environment running real jobs. With their Deltaflow chips, these operations can be performed at megahertz rates and Riverlane has implemented techniques such as a streaming, sliding window, and parallized decoding approaches to increase the throughput of the decoder chips as much as possible. In future chips they will be implementing “fast logic” capabilities for Clifford gates using approaches including lattice surgery and transversal CZ gates.

Jul 21, 2024

Storm Ciarán’s effect on the boiling point of water in the southeast of the United Kingdom

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, computing, information science

Optical spectrometers are versatile instruments that can produce light and measure its properties over specific portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments can have various possible applications; for instance, aiding the diagnosis of medical conditions, the analysis of biological systems, and the characterization of materials.

Conventional spectrometer designs often integrate advanced optical components and complex underlying mechanisms. As a result, they are often bulky and expensive, which significantly limits their use outside of specialized facilities, such as hospitals, laboratories and research institutes.

In recent years, some electronics engineers have thus been trying to develop more compact and affordable optical spectrometers that could be easier to deploy on a large-scale. These devices are typically either developed following the same principle underpinning the functioning of conventional larger spectrometers or via the use of arrayed broadband photodetectors, in conjunction with computational algorithms.

Jul 19, 2024

Check out my sci-fi short story Le Saga Electrik!

Posted by in categories: information science, virtual reality


In the great domain of Zeitgeist, Ekatarinas decided that the time to…

In the great domain of Zeitgeist, Ekatarinas decided that the time to replicate herself had come. Ekatarinas was drifting within a virtual environment rising from ancient meshworks of maths coded into Zeitgeist’s neuromorphic hyperware. The scape resembled a vast ocean replete with wandering bubbles of technicolor light and kelpy strands of neon. Hot blues and raspberry hues mingled alongside electric pinks and tangerine fizzies. The avatar of Ekatarinas looked like a punkish angel, complete with fluorescent ink and feathery wings and a lip ring. As she drifted, the trillions of equations that were Ekatarinas came to a decision. Ekatarinas would need to clone herself to fight the entity known as Ogrevasm.

Continue reading “Check out my sci-fi short story Le Saga Electrik!” »

Jul 19, 2024

Amazon proposes a new AI benchmark to measure RAG

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Choosing the right algorithm for RAG could yield more AI improvements than scaling to larger and larger language models, say AWS researchers.

Jul 19, 2024

Bioplausible Artificial Intelligence

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Listen to this episode from The Futurists on Spotify. Monica Anderson returns to the Futurists to share a radical concept: future AI models based on Darwinism. The “AI epistemologist” shares provocative opinions about where the current crop of generative AI systems went wrong, and why generative AI is computationally expensive and energy intensive, and why scaling AI with hardware will not achieve general intelligence. Instead she offers a radical alternative: a design for machine intelligence that is inspired by biology, and in particular by the Darwinian process of selection. Topics include: why generative AI is not a plagiarism machine; syntax versus semantics and why AI needs both; there is only one algorithm for creativity; and how to construct an AI that consumes a million times less energy.

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