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Archive for the ‘bioengineering’ category: Page 20

May 1, 2023

Deep learning pioneer Geoffrey Hinton quits Google

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, robotics/AI

Geoffrey Hinton, a VP and engineering fellow at Google and a pioneer of deep learning who developed some of the most important techniques at the heart of modern AI, is leaving the company after 10 years, the New York Times reported today.

According to the Times, Hinton says he has new fears about the technology he helped usher in and wants to speak openly about them, and that a part of him now regrets his life’s work.

May 1, 2023

Forget AI; Organoid Intelligence May Soon Power Our Computers

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, genetics, robotics/AI

While the world has been captivated by recent advances in artificial intelligence, researchers at Johns Hopkins University have identified a new form of intelligence: organoid intelligence. A future where computers are powered by lab-grown brain cells may be closer than we could ever have imagined.

What is an organoid? Organoids are three-dimensional tissue cultures commonly derived from human pluripotent stem cells. What looks like a clump of cells can be engineered to function like a human organ, mirroring its key structural and biological characteristics. Under the right laboratory conditions, genetic instructions from donated stem cells allow organoids to self-organize and grow into any type of organ tissue, including the human brain.

Although this may sound like science-fiction, brain organoids have been used to model and study neurodegenerative diseases for nearly a decade. Emerging studies now reveal that these lab grown brain cells may be capable of learning. In fact, a research team from Melbourne recently reported that they trained 800,000 brain cells to perform the computer game, Pong (see video). As this field of research continues to grow, researchers speculate that this so-called “intelligence in a dish” may be able to outcompete artificial intelligence.

Apr 30, 2023

The Optimal Angle for Cleaning with Bubbles

Posted by in category: bioengineering

A stream of air bubbles can be most effective at cleaning produce or industrial equipment if it strikes at the correct angle.

Researchers believe that washing vegetables and food-processing equipment with flowing liquids filled with air bubbles could be effective, but little is known about how to optimize the process. Now engineers, using experiments and simulations, have shown that bubbles exert an optimal cleaning effect if they strike a surface at an angle of about 22.5° [1]. The researchers hope that this insight will help improve methods for the gentle cleaning of fruits and vegetables, potentially leading to a commercial food-cleaning device that they call a “fruit Jacuzzi.”

As bioengineer Sunghwan “Sunny” Jung of Cornell University points out, bubbles injected into fluid have long been used to clean biofilm-encrusted surfaces in settings such as wastewater treatment facilities. Experts generally believe that the technique works because bubbles flowing over a surface exert a shear force, parallel to the surface, which tends to remove attached contaminants. “It’s similar to how you move your hand along the surface of your skin when you’re cleaning your body, applying a shearing force at the surface,” says Jung. Even so, he says, little is known about the basic science behind the effect and in particular about how the motions of bubbles within the liquid might optimize the cleaning.

Apr 30, 2023

The Future of Satellite-Based Synthetic Biology and Genetic Engineering

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, genetics

The potential of satellite-based synthetic biology and genetic engineering to revolutionize healthcare is becoming increasingly clear. Recent advances in the field have opened up a world of possibilities for medical professionals and researchers, allowing them to diagnose and treat diseases more effectively and efficiently than ever before.

Satellite-based synthetic biology and genetic engineering have already been used to develop treatments for a variety of conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders. By using satellite-based techniques, researchers can quickly and accurately identify genetic mutations and other abnormalities in a patient’s DNA. This allows them to develop personalized treatments that are tailored to the individual’s specific needs.

The use of satellite-based synthetic biology and genetic engineering also has the potential to reduce healthcare costs. By identifying genetic mutations and other abnormalities at an early stage, doctors can avoid costly and unnecessary treatments. This could lead to significant savings for both patients and healthcare providers.

Apr 30, 2023

MIT’s Tiny Terahertz Receiver Preserves IoT Battery Life

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, education, energy

Researchers demonstrate a low-power “wake-up” receiver one-tenth the size of other devices.

MIT

MIT is an acronym for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is a prestigious private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts that was founded in 1861. It is organized into five Schools: architecture and planning; engineering; humanities, arts, and social sciences; management; and science. MIT’s impact includes many scientific breakthroughs and technological advances. Their stated goal is to make a better world through education, research, and innovation.

Apr 29, 2023

Bold new therapy delivery method shows initial promise as treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical

Doug Millay, Ph.D., a scientist with the Division of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology at Cincinnati Children’s has dedicated his career to revealing the most fundamental mechanisms of skeletal muscle development. He has been a leader in characterizing how two “fusogens” called Myomaker and Myomerger mediate the entry of stem cells into mature muscle cells to build the tissue that humans depend upon for movement, breathing, and survival.

Now, some of the basic discoveries made by Millay and colleagues are translating into a potential treatment for people living with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Their latest research, published April 12, 2023, in the journal Cell, reveals that in mice, modified viruses, engineered with Myomaker and Myomerger, result in specific fusion with . These viruses can therefore be used as a vector to deliver a vital gene needed for that is mutated in people with DMD.

A key unknown prior to this work was whether proteins like Myomaker and Myomerger, which mainly function on cells, could even work on viruses. First author Sajedah Hindi, Ph.D., also with the Division of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology at Cincinnati Children’s and a leading member of the research team, took on the challenge to test this idea.

Apr 23, 2023

Hematopoietic Transfer of the Anti-Cancer and Lifespan-Extending Capabilities of A Genetically Engineered Blood System

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, genetics, life extension

A causal relationship exists among the aging process, organ decay and dis-function, and the occurrence of various diseases including cancer. A genetically engineered mouse model, termed EklfK74R/K74R or Eklf (K74R), carrying mutation on the well-conserved sumoylation site of the hematopoietic transcription factor KLF1/ EKLF has been generated that possesses extended lifespan and healthy characteristics including cancer resistance. We show that the high anti-cancer capability of the Eklf (K74R) mice are gender-, age-and genetic background-independent. Significantly, the anti-cancer capability and extended lifespan characteristics of Eklf (K74R) mice could be transferred to wild-type mice via transplantation of their bone marrow mononuclear cells. Targeted/global gene expression profiling analysis has identified changes of the expression of specific proteins and cellular pathways in the leukocytes of the Eklf (K74R) that are in the directions of anti-cancer and/or anti-aging. This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing a novel hematopoietic/ blood system for long-term anti-cancer and, potentially, for anti-aging.

The authors have declared no competing interest.

Apr 23, 2023

Organoid Intelligence: Computing on the Brain

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, robotics/AI

In parallel to recent developments in machine learning like GPT-4, a group of scientists has recently proposed the use of neural tissue itself, carefully grown to recreate the structures of the animal brain, as a computational substrate. After all, if AI is inspired by neurological systems, what better medium to do computing than an actual neurological system? Gathering developments from the fields of computer science, electrical engineering, neurobiology, electrophysiology, and pharmacology, the authors propose a new research initiative they call “organoid intelligence.”

OI is a collective effort to promote the use of brain organoids —tiny spherical masses of brain tissue grown from stem cells—for computation, drug research and as a model to study at a small scale how a complete brain may function. In other words, organoids provide an opportunity to better understand the brain, and OI aims to use that knowledge to develop neurobiological computational systems that learn from less data and with less energy than silicon hardware.

The development of organoids has been made possible by two bioengineering breakthroughs: induced pluripotent stem cells and 3D cell culturing techniques.

Apr 23, 2023

Artificial intelligence and machine learning are powering efforts to bioengineer new enzymes, expedite drug development and improve access to radiotherapy

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, robotics/AI

Orion in March announced it has set out on a four-year project to build a cutting-edge ecosystem for pharmaceutical research in Finland.

Consisting of companies, universities and research institutes, the ecosystem will utilise artificial intelligence and machine learning in order to reduce the time required for studying and developing pharmaceutical products.

“Utilising data with the help of artificial intelligence is a competitive advantage for developing new innovative medicines because it expedites development and significantly increases the probability of success,” toldOuti Vaarala, director of innovative medicines at Orion.

Apr 22, 2023

This 753-Foot Megaship Aims to Be the First Eco-Conscious Luxury Residential Community on the High Seas

Posted by in category: bioengineering

If you’re a fan of life on the high seas, this new project will let you travel them year-round in luxe accommodations.

On Tuesday, private residential ship maker Storylines and Croatian shipyard Brodosplit announced they have signed a ship building contract to create what they’re calling the world’s first environmentally conscious residential ship. The 753-foot vessel, dubbed MV Narrative, has begun its engineering phase. The development’s retail value is estimated at $1.5 billion.

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