Archive for the ‘neuroscience’ category: Page 2

Nov 4, 2020

Brain organoids for the study of human neurobiology at the interface of in vitro and in vivo

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Chiaradia and Lancaster review applications and limitations of brain organoids, placing them in context with other technologies and describing how these methods are heavily informed by in vivo development.

Nov 1, 2020

Are the Brain’s Electromagnetic Fields the Seat of Consciousness?

Posted by in category: neuroscience

“It was a jaw-dropping moment, for us and for every scientist we told about this so far.”

But what if there’s more to the story? What if the electromagnetic fields generated by, but which are not identical to, the neuroanatomy of the brain, are in fact the primary seat of consciousness? The brain’s fields are generated by various physiological processes in the brain, but primarily by trans-membrane currents moving through neurons. These fields are always oscillating and they come in various speeds, clustered around certain bands, from delta on the lower end at 1–2.5 cycles (oscillations) per second (Hertz) up to gamma at 40–120 cycles per second.

Some neuroscientists have long considered the brain’s oscillating electromagnetic fields to be interesting but merely “epiphenomenal” features of the brain—like a train whistle on a steam-powered locomotive. Electromagnetic fields may just be noise that doesn’t affect the workings of the brain. Koch still seems to lean this way.

Nov 1, 2020

Tweeting with your MIND? Meet Stentrode: The Neuralink Rival ALREADY in Clinical Trials

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, computing, neuroscience

A closer look at Stentrode, the Brain Computer Interface that interacts with the brain via blood vessels. Recent paper demonstrating it working in 2 ALS patients.

Han from WrySci HX goes through the very interesting brain computer interface called Stentrode that can let you tweet with your mind. As a BCI, it’s a rival to Neuralink, Kernal, and Openwater. Find out about its background, how it works, why it’s the most unique BCI, and some results from its clinical trials. More below ↓↓↓

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Oct 31, 2020

Brainstem Neurons Control Both Behavior and Misbehavior

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Summary: Study reveals how gene control mechanisms determine the identity of neurons in the embryonic brainstem. A failure in differentiation in developing brainstem neurons can lead to behavioral abnormalities, including ADHD.

Source: University of Helsinki

A recent study at the University of Helsinki reveals how gene control mechanisms define the identity of developing neurons in the brainstem. The researchers also showed that a failure in differentiation of the brainstem neurons leads to behavioural abnormalities, including hyperactivity and attention deficit.

Oct 30, 2020

Virgin Hyperloop Wonders: What Does 600 MPH Travel Do to the Brain?

Posted by in categories: business, neuroscience

Virgin Hyperloop, the transportation company owned by business magnate Richard Branson, has ambitious plans to build a vacuum tube transportation system that travels over 600 miles per hour.

But before it does so, the company has made the reasonable decision to figure out what traveling that quickly might to do the brain. To wit, scientists at West Virginia’s Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute (RNI) will find out what to expect when launching passengers at 78 percent the speed of sound.

Hold on to your brains!

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Oct 29, 2020

A groundbreaking genetic screening tool for human organoids

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, neuroscience

Many of the fundamental principles in biology and essentially all pathways regulating development were identified in so-called genetics screens. Originally pioneered in the fruit fly Drosophila and the nematode C. elegans, genetic screens involve inactivation of many genes one by one. By analyzing the consequences of gene loss, scientists can draw conclusions about its function. This way, for example, all genes required for formation of a brain can be identified.

Genetic screens can routinely be carried out in flies and worms. In humans, a wealth of knowledge exists about genetic disorders and the consequences of disease-relevant mutations, but their systematic analysis was impossible. Now, the Knoblich lab at IMBA has developed a groundbreaking technique allowing hundreds of to be analyzed in parallel in . They named the new technology CRISPR-LICHT and published their findings in the journal Science.

By using cerebral organoids, a 3D cell culture model for the human developed in Jürgen Knoblich’s group at IMBA, hundreds of mutations can now be analyzed for their role in the using CRISPR-LICHT.

Oct 29, 2020

A New Way to Plug a Human Brain Into a Computer: via Veins

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, computing, neuroscience

Article. I guess having implants directly on the brain isn’t the only way to have a brain to machine interface. The scientists involved in the study found an alternative by picking up signals through the blood vessels.

It’s not as information packed as a direct brain connection, but it’s not as invasive.

I think it would be a good alternative or even complementary to direct brain implants. Interesting. 😃

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Oct 29, 2020

New ‘epigenetic’ clock provides insight into how the human brain ages

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, life extension, neuroscience

While our circadian body clock dictates our preferred rhythm of sleep or wakefulness, a relatively new concept—the epigenetic clock—could inform us about how swiftly we age, and how prone we are to diseases of old age.

People age at different rates, with some individuals developing both characteristics and diseases related to aging earlier in life than others. Understanding more about this so-called ‘biological age’ could help us learn more about how we can prevent diseases associated with age, such as . Epigenetic markers control the extent to which genes are switched on and off across the different cell-types and tissues that make up a . Unlike our , these epigenetic marks change over time, and these changes can be used to accurately predict biological age from a DNA .

Now, scientists at the University of Exeter have developed a new specifically for the . As a result of using human tissue samples, the new clock is far more accurate than previous versions, that were based on blood samples or other tissues. The researchers hope that their new clock, published in Brain and funded by Alzheimer’s Society, will provide insight into how accelerated aging in the brain might be associated with brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia.

Oct 29, 2020

The Lancet Healthy Longevity

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, neuroscience

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic does not affect everyone equally. While anyone can contract COVID-19, accumulating data suggest that older people or those with pre-existing comorbidities are far more likely to have severe complications or die from the disease. While researchers scramble to unravel the mechanisms of action underlying the disease’s wide-ranging effects, news that the disease hits older people hardest has been received without demur: it is widely accepted that to be old is to be fragile. Indeed, even in so-called normal times, everyone expects more things break as people age: bones, hearts, brains. In the context of the pandemic, being old is seen as just one more comorbidity.

It should not be.

We accept growing old and losing our vitality as an inevitability of life. To do so is to overlook the fact that ageing is, fundamentally, a plastic trait—influenced both by our genetic predispositions and many (controllable) environmental factors. Anecdotally we know this to be true: for some, being in their eighties means being confined to a wheelchair whereas for others, like Eileen Noble, who at 84 years old was the oldest runner in 2019’s London Marathon, it decidedly does not. The burgeoning field of biogerontology is now beginning to amass data in support of such observations. Single genetic mutations in evolutionarily conserved pathways across model organisms—ranging from fruit flies to mice—increase lifespan by up to 80%. Crucially, not only do these animals live longer, they also have a longer youthspan—the proportion of their lives in which they retain the trappings of youth such as peak mobility, immunity, and stress resilience.

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Oct 28, 2020

Uppsala in Last Preclinical Stage for New CAR T-cell Product for Glioblastoma

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Researchers at Uppsala University, in Sweden, in collaboration with the SciLifeLab Drug Discovery and Development Platform, have taken “a large step forward” in developing a potential CAR T-cell therapy for glioblastoma, an aggressive form of brain cancer that is often difficult to treat.

Their project is now entering the final preclinical stage of development, according to the university. The goal is to start clinical studies within four years.

“Extremely few breakthroughs have been made around treating Glioblastoma,” Magnus Essand, professor of gene therapy at Uppsala, said in a press release.

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