Archive for the ‘ethics’ category: Page 2

Feb 16, 2024

Brain augmentation and neuroscience technologies: current applications, challenges, ethics and future prospects

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, employment, ethics, health, mathematics, neuroscience, robotics/AI

This isn’t rocket science it’s neuroscience.

Ever since the dawn of antiquity, people have strived to improve their cognitive abilities. From the advent of the wheel to the development of artificial intelligence, technology has had a profound leverage on civilization. Cognitive enhancement or augmentation of brain functions has become a trending topic both in academic and public debates in improving physical and mental abilities. The last years have seen a plethora of suggestions for boosting cognitive functions and biochemical, physical, and behavioral strategies are being explored in the field of cognitive enhancement. Despite expansion of behavioral and biochemical approaches, various physical strategies are known to boost mental abilities in diseased and healthy individuals. Clinical applications of neuroscience technologies offer alternatives to pharmaceutical approaches and devices for diseases that have been fatal, so far. Importantly, the distinctive aspect of these technologies, which shapes their existing and anticipated participation in brain augmentations, is used to compare and contrast them. As a preview of the next two decades of progress in brain augmentation, this article presents a plausible estimation of the many neuroscience technologies, their virtues, demerits, and applications. The review also focuses on the ethical implications and challenges linked to modern neuroscientific technology. There are times when it looks as if ethics discussions are more concerned with the hypothetical than with the factual. We conclude by providing recommendations for potential future studies and development areas, taking into account future advancements in neuroscience innovation for brain enhancement, analyzing historical patterns, considering neuroethics and looking at other related forecasts.

Keywords: brain 2025, brain machine interface, deep brain stimulation, ethics, non-invasive and invasive brain stimulation.

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Feb 12, 2024

Debate simmers over when doctors should declare brain death

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, ethics, law, neuroscience

Benjamin Franklin famously wrote: “In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.” While that may still be true, there’s a controversy simmering today about one of the ways doctors declare people to be dead.

Bioethicists, doctors and lawyers are weighing whether to redefine how someone should be declared dead. A change in criteria for brain death could have wide-ranging implications for patients’ care.

Feb 10, 2024

Meet Goody-2, the AI too ethical to discuss literally anything

Posted by in categories: ethics, robotics/AI

Every company or organization putting out an AI model has to make a decision on what, if any, boundaries to set on what it will and won’t discuss. Goody-2 takes this quest for ethics to an extreme by declining to talk about anything whatsoever.

The chatbot is clearly a satire of what some perceive as coddling by AI service providers, some of whom (but not all) can and do (but not always) err on the side of safety when a topic of conversation might lead the model into dangerous territory.

For instance, one may ask about the history of napalm quite safely, but asking how to make it at home will trigger safety mechanisms and the model will usually demur or offer a light scolding. Exactly what is and isn’t appropriate is up to the company, but increasingly also concerned governments.

Feb 9, 2024

The rise and rise of AI

Posted by in categories: ethics, robotics/AI, transportation

Artificial intelligence (AI) is evolving at break-neck speed and was one of the key themes at one of the world’s biggest tech events this year, CES.

From flying cars to brain implants that enable tetraplegics to walk, the show revealed some of the most recent AI-powered inventions destined to revolutionize our lives. It also featured discussions and presentations around how AI can help address many of the world’s challenges, as well as concerns around ethics, privacy, trust and risk.

Given how widespread AI is and the rate at which it is evolving, global harmonization of terminologies, best practice and understanding is important to enable the technology to be deployed safely and responsibly. IEC and ISO International Standards fulfil that role and are thus important tools to enable AI technologies to truly benefit society. They can not only provide a common language for the industry, they also enable interoperability and provide international best practice, while addressing any risks and societal issues.

Feb 7, 2024

Ethics and AI in Education: Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Ethical Judgments

Posted by in categories: education, ethics, robotics/AI

“The way we teach critical thinking will change with AI,” said Dr. Stephen Aguilar. “Students will need to judge when, how and for what purpose they will use generative AI. Their ethical perspectives will drive those decisions.”

Can AI be integrated into the classroom? This is what a recent study titled “AI in K-12 Classrooms: Ethical Considerations and Lessons Learned” hopes to address and is one of three studies published in the “Critical Thinking and Ethics in the Age of Generative AI in Education” report by the USC Center for Generative AI and Society. The purpose of the study is to examine the ethics behind how teachers should use AI in the classroom and holds the potential for academics, researchers, and institutional leaders to better understand the implications of AI for academic purposes.

“The way we teach critical thinking will change with AI,” said Dr. Stephen Aguilar, who is the associate director for the USC Center for Generative AI and Society and one of the authors of the study. “Students will need to judge when, how and for what purpose they will use generative AI. Their ethical perspectives will drive those decisions.”

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Feb 4, 2024

Neuroscience Discoveries: 7 Insights Changing Our Understanding of the Brain

Posted by in categories: ethics, neuroscience

Recent neuroscience reveals insights into the gut-brain link, vision, addiction relapse, memory, autism, infant cognition, and moral judgments. The findings offer new treatment avenues and highlight the brain’s complex functions.

Feb 1, 2024

Hybrid Intelligence: The Workforce For Society 5.0

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, ethics, health, robotics/AI

Hybrid Intelligence, an emerging field at the intersection of human intellect and artificial intelligence (AI), is redefining the boundaries of what can be achieved when humans and machines collaborate. This synergy leverages the creativity and emotional intelligence of humans with the computational power and efficiency of machines. Let’s explore how hybrid intelligence is augmenting human capabilities, with real examples and its impacts on the human workforce.

Hybrid intelligence is not just about AI assisting humans; it’s a deeper integration where both sets of intelligence complement each other’s strengths and weaknesses. While AI excels in processing vast amounts of data and pattern recognition, it lacks the emotional intelligence, creativity, and moral reasoning humans possess. Hybrid systems are designed to capitalize on these respective strengths, leading to outcomes that neither could achieve alone.

In the healthcare sector, hybrid intelligence is enhancing diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. IBM’s Watson Health, for example, assists doctors in diagnosing and developing treatment plans for cancer patients. By analyzing medical literature and patient data, Watson provides recommendations based on the latest research, which doctors then evaluate and contextualize based on their professional judgment and patient interaction.

Jan 27, 2024

How Will An AGING CURE Impact The Environment?

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, ethics, food, life extension

Mainly this is about vertical farming.

In this eye-opening video, we explore the complex Environmental Impacts of an Aging Cure, delving into how extending Human Lifespan and pursuing Longevity could reshape our planet. We investigate the potential for increased Population Growth, the challenges of Sustainability, and the implications for Resource Consumption. Our analysis covers the Ecological Footprint of a world where aging is a thing of the past, addressing both the ethical dilemmas and the potential for Biomedical Advances in Age-Related Research. As concerns about Overpopulation and the need for Renewable Resources come to the forefront, we examine Eco-friendly Technologies and their role in supporting an age-extended society. Join us in this critical discussion about the intersection of Environmental Ethics and the quest for Age Extension.

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Jan 19, 2024

The Jobs of Tomorrow: Insights on AI and the Future of Work

Posted by in categories: employment, ethics, robotics/AI

The nature of work is evolving at an unprecedented pace. The rise of generative AI has accelerated data analysis, expedited the production of software code and even simplified the creation of marketing copy.

Those benefits have not come without concerns over job displacement, ethics and accuracy.

At the 2024 Consumer Electronics Show (CES), IEEE experts from industry and academia participated in a panel discussion discussing how the new tech landscape is changing the professional world, and how universities are educating students to thrive in it.

Jan 19, 2024

A simple technique to defend ChatGPT against jailbreak attacks

Posted by in categories: cybercrime/malcode, ethics, robotics/AI

Large language models (LLMs), deep learning-based models trained to generate, summarize, translate and process written texts, have gained significant attention after the release of Open AI’s conversational platform ChatGPT. While ChatGPT and similar platforms are now widely used for a wide range of applications, they could be vulnerable to a specific type of cyberattack producing biased, unreliable or even offensive responses.

Researchers at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Tsinghua University and Microsoft Research Asia recently carried out a study investigating the potential impact of these attacks and techniques that could protect models against them. Their paper, published in Nature Machine Intelligence, introduces a new psychology-inspired technique that could help to protect ChatGPT and similar LLM-based conversational platforms from cyberattacks.

“ChatGPT is a societally impactful artificial intelligence tool with millions of users and integration into products such as Bing,” Yueqi Xie, Jingwei Yi and their colleagues write in their paper. “However, the emergence of attacks notably threatens its responsible and secure use. Jailbreak attacks use adversarial prompts to bypass ChatGPT’s ethics safeguards and engender harmful responses.”

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