Archive for the ‘energy’ category: Page 24

Mar 9, 2024

Toyota to boost EV battery production with Primearth EV Energy buyout

Posted by in categories: energy, transportation

Toyota is boosting its ability to mass-produce “a wide variety” of EV batteries following an agreement with Panasonic to take full control of Primearth EV Energy (PEVE). The move will help Toyota respond to the growing demand for batteries.

The automaker agreed with Panasonic to make Primearth EV Energy a wholly owned subsidiary Tuesday.

Toyota said the acquisition will strengthen its ability to mass produce EV batteries. It is officially scheduled for later this month.

Mar 9, 2024

When the music changes, so does the dance: Controlling cooperative electronic states in kagome metals

Posted by in categories: energy, media & arts

Playing a different soundtrack is, physically speaking, only a minute change of the vibration spectrum, yet its impact on a dance floor is dramatic. People long for this tiny trigger, and as a salsa changes to a tango completely different collective patterns emerge.

Electrons in metals tend to show only one behavior at zero temperature, when all is quenched. One needs to frustrate the electronic interaction to break the dominance of one particular electronic order and allow multiple possible configurations. Recent results published in Nature Physics on kagome nets suggest that this triangular lattice is quite effective at doing so.

Named after the Japanese bamboo-basket woven pattern, a two-dimensional (2D) is constructed by a series of corner-sharing triangles. When each corner is occupied with with antiferromagnetic correlations, the nearest-neighbor interactions favor anti-aligned spins.

Mar 9, 2024

Astrophysicists unveil new phenomenon challenging textbook definition of white dwarf stars

Posted by in categories: energy, physics, space

Scientists have revealed why some white dwarfs mysteriously stop cooling—changing ideas on just how old stars really are and what happens to them when they die.

White dwarf stars are universally believed to be ‘’ that continuously cool down over time. However, in 2019, data from the European Space Agency’s (ESA’s) Gaia satellite discovered a population of white dwarf stars that have stopped for more than eight billion years. This suggested that some can generate significant extra energy, at odds with the classical ‘dead star’ picture, and astronomers initially were not sure how this could happen.

Today, new research published in Nature, led by Dr. Antoine Bédard from the University of Warwick and Dr. Simon Blouin from the University of Victoria (Canada), unveils the mechanism behind this baffling observation.

Mar 9, 2024

Scientists propose new scheme for the quantum battery using waveguides

Posted by in categories: energy, quantum physics

A new study by researchers at Lanzhou University and Hubei University proposes a quantum battery (QB) charging scheme based on a rectangular hollow metal waveguide. This approach allows them to overcome environment-induced decoherence and charging distance limitations. The findings are published in Physical Review Letters.

The demand and supply for batteries continue to grow with a focus on enhancing energy storage, longevity, and charging capabilities. On this front, scientists are now developing quantum batteries that leverage principles of quantum mechanics to store and supply energy.

The aim is to use fundamental principles of quantum mechanics such as entanglement and coherence to overcome the constraints of classical physics, thereby achieving stronger charging power, higher charging capacity, and larger work extraction compared to classical counterparts.

Mar 9, 2024

Tapping into the 300GHz Band with an Innovative CMOS Transmitter

Posted by in categories: energy, internet

New phased-array transmitter design overcomes common problems of CMOS technology in the 300 GHz band, as reported by scientists from Tokyo Tech. Thanks to its remarkable area efficiency, low power consumption, and high data rate, the proposed transmitter could pave the way to many technological applications in the 300 GHz band, including body and cell monitoring, radar, 6G wireless communications, and terahertz sensors.

Today, most frequencies above the 250 GHz mark remain unallocated.

Accordingly, many researchers are developing 300 GHz transmitters/receivers to capitalize on the low atmospheric absorption at these frequencies, as well as the potential for extremely high data rates that comes with it.

Mar 9, 2024

Sustainable Chemistry Achieved: Scientists Develop Organic Framework Material That Mimics Photosynthesis

Posted by in categories: chemistry, energy, sustainability

Scientists at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have created a microporous covalent organic framework with dense donor–acceptor lattices and engineered linkages for the efficient and clean production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) through the photosynthesis process with water and air.

Traditional industrial production of H2O2 via the anthraquinone process using hydrogen and oxygen, is highly energy-intensive. This approach employs toxic solvents and expensive noble-metal catalysts, and generates substantial waste from side reactions.

Mar 2, 2024

Scientists Demonstrate Effective Fusion “Spark Plug” in Groundbreaking Experiments

Posted by in categories: energy, innovation

Researchers at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) have led experiments showcasing an efficient “spark plug” for direct-drive approaches to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In a pair of studies featured in Nature Physics, the team shares their findings and details the potential for scaling up these methods, aiming for successful fusion in a future facility.

LLE is the largest university-based U.S. Department of Energy program and hosts the OMEGA laser system, which is the largest academic laser in the world but still almost one hundredth the energy of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. With OMEGA, Rochester scientists completed several successful attempts to fire 28 kilojoules of laser energy at small capsules filled with deuterium and tritium fuel, causing the capsules to implode and produce a plasma hot enough to initiate fusion reactions between the fuel nuclei. The experiments caused fusion reactions that produced more energy than the amount of energy in the central hot plasma.

The OMEGA experiments use direct laser illumination of the capsule and differ from the indirect drive approach used on the NIF. When using the indirect drive approach, the laser light is converted into X-rays that in turn drive the capsule implosion. The NIF used indirect drive to irradiate a capsule with X-rays using about 2,000 kilojoules of laser energy. This led to a 2022 breakthrough at NIF in achieving fusion ignition —a fusion reaction that creates a net gain of energy from the target.

Mar 2, 2024

Scientists May Have Tamed Fusion’s #1 Nemesis

Posted by in categories: energy, innovation

A breakthrough in plasma control brings us a step closer to safe, limitless power.

Feb 29, 2024

Supramolecule combination of fullerene and metalloporphyrin improves zinc-air battery function

Posted by in categories: energy, sustainability, transportation

Zinc-air batteries are an inexpensive, powerful battery alternative that can be used on the small scale to power electronics or on the large scale for electric vehicles or energy storage. These batteries work when oxygen from the air oxidizes zinc, but the difficulty in oxygen activation which degrades battery performance has prevented their wide commercial adoption.

Information presented in a paper published in Carbon Future (“Fullerene-metalloporphyrin co-crystal as efficient ORR electrocatalyst precursor for Zn-air batteries”) shows how the addition of fullerene-derived carbon materials as catalysts can improve performance, stability, and cost of zinc-air batteries.

This graphic illustrates a zinc-air battery can using a fullerene-metalloporphyrin co-crystal as an oxygen reduction reaction catalyst. (Image: Carbon Future, Tsinghua University Press)

Feb 28, 2024

Nonreciprocal Frustration Meets Geometrical Frustration

Posted by in categories: education, energy, mathematics, physics

New theoretical work establishes an analogy between systems that are dynamically frustrated, such as glasses, and thermodynamic systems whose members have conflicting goals, such as predator–prey ecosystems.

A system is geometrically frustrated when its members cannot find a configuration that simultaneously minimizes all their interaction energies, as is the case for a two-dimensional antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice. A nonreciprocal system is one whose members have conflicting, asymmetric goals, as exemplified by an ecosystem of predators and prey. New work by Ryo Hanai of Kyoto University, Japan, has identified a powerful mathematical analogy between those two types of dynamical systems [1]. Nonreciprocity alters collective behavior, yet its technological potential is largely untapped. The new link to geometrical frustration will open new prospects for applications.

To appreciate Hanai’s feat, consider how different geometric frustration and nonreciprocity appear at first. Frustration defies the approach that physics students are taught in their introductory classes, based on looking at the world through Hamiltonian dynamics. In this approach, energy is to be minimized and states of matter characterized by their degree of order. Some of the most notable accomplishments in statistical physics have entailed describing changes between states—that is, phase transitions. Glasses challenge that framework. These are systems whose interactions are so spatially frustrated that they cannot find an equilibrium spatial order. But they can find an order that’s “frozen” in time. Even at a nonzero temperature, everything is stuck—and not just in one state. Many different configurations coexist whose energies are nearly the same.

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