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Archive for the ‘computing’ category: Page 9

May 28, 2024

Unveiling the microscopic mechanism of superconducting metallic transistors

Posted by in categories: computing, innovation

Transistors are the basis for microchips and the whole electronic industry. The invention of transistors, by Bardeen and Brattain in 1947, awarded with a Nobel prize, is regarded as one of the most important discoveries of the 20th century.

May 28, 2024

A Huge Cosmology Problem Might Just Have Disappeared

Posted by in categories: computing, cosmology, mathematics, open access, physics

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The rate at which the universe is currently expanding is known as the Hubble Rate. In recent years, different measurements have given different results for the Hubble rate, a discrepancy between theory and observation that’s been called the “Hubble tension”. Now, a team of astrophysicists claims the Hubble tension is gone and it’s the fault of supernovae data. Let’s have a look.

Continue reading “A Huge Cosmology Problem Might Just Have Disappeared” »

May 28, 2024

The Quantum Twist: Unveiling the Proton’s Hidden Spin

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

New research combining experimental and computational approaches provides deeper insights into proton spin contributions from gluons.

Nuclear physicists have been tirelessly exploring the origins of proton spin. A novel approach, merging experimental data with cutting-edge calculations, has now illuminated the spin contributions from gluons—the particles that bind protons. This advancement also sets the stage for three-dimensional imaging of the proton structure.

Joseph Karpie, a postdoctoral associate at the Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics (Theory Center) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, led this groundbreaking research.

May 27, 2024

Computer scientists discover Vulnerability in Cloud Server Hardware used by AMD and Intel Chips

Posted by in categories: computing, security

Public cloud services employ special security technologies. Computer scientists at ETH Zurich have now discovered a gap in the latest security mechanisms used by AMD and Intel chips. This affects major cloud providers.

Over the past few years, hardware manufacturers have developed technologies that ought to make it possible for companies and governmental organizations to process sensitive data securely using shared cloud computing resources.

Known as confidential computing, this approach protects sensitive data while it is being processed by isolating it in an area that is impenetrable to other users and even to the cloud provider. But computer scientists at ETH Zurich have now proved that it is possible for hackers to gain access to these systems and to the data stored in them.

May 25, 2024

Revolutionary Qubit Technology Paves Way for Practical Quantum Computer

Posted by in categories: computing, quantum physics

Advancements in qubit technology at the University of Basel show promise for scalable quantum computing, using electron and hole spins to achieve precise qubit control and interactions.

The pursuit of a practical quantum computer is in full swing, with researchers worldwide exploring a wide array of qubit technologies. Despite extensive efforts, there is still no consensus on which type of qubit best maximizes the potential of quantum information science.

Qubits are the foundation of a quantum computer. They’re responsible for processing, transferring, and storing data. Effective qubits must reliably store and rapidly process information. This demands stable, swift interactions among a large number of qubits that external systems can accurately control.

May 25, 2024

Physicists Uncover Unusual New Quantum State Known As “Dirac Spin Liquid”

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

Researchers at the University of Hong Kong discovered Dirac spinons in the material YCu3-Br, providing evidence of a quantum spin liquid state and potentially advancing applications in quantum computing and high-temperature superconductivity.

Quasiparticles are fascinating entities that arise from collective behavior within materials and can be treated as a group of particles. Specifically, Dirac spinons are anticipated to exhibit unique characteristics similar to Dirac particles in high-energy physics and Dirac electrons in graphene and quantum moiré materials, such as a linear dispersion relation between energy and momentum. However, spin-½ charge-neutral quasiparticles had not been observed in quantum magnets until this work.

‘“To find Dirac spinons in quantum magnets has been the dream of generations of condensed matter physicists; now that we have seen the evidence of them, one can start to think about the countless potential applications of such highly entangled quantum material. Who knows, maybe one-day people will build quantum computers with it, just as people have been doing in the past half-century with silicon,’” said Professor Meng, HKU physicist and one of the corresponding authors of the paper.

May 25, 2024

Researchers identify best algorithms to optimize performance of functionally graded materials

Posted by in categories: computing, engineering, information science

A study from Japan published in the International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology reveals a way to optimize the composition of functionally graded materials (FGMs). FGMs are advanced composite materials with a gradual variation in composition and properties across their volume, designed to optimize performance under specific loading conditions.

May 25, 2024

Brain-inspired chip integrates trainable neurons for ultra-efficient computing

Posted by in categories: computing, neuroscience

Researchers create fully memristive neuromorphic chip integrating trainable dendritic neurons and high-density RRAM, enabling energy-efficient brain-inspired computing architectures.

May 25, 2024

Printed organic transistors achieve record performance and 3D circuit density

Posted by in category: computing

Researchers printed high-performance organic transistor arrays and logic circuits with an amorphous polymer semiconductor, achieving 100% yield, excellent uniformity, and the highest reported density of 100 printed transistors per square centimeter.

May 25, 2024

More than spins: Exploring uncharted territory in quantum devices

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

Many of today’s quantum devices rely on collections of qubits, also called spins. These quantum bits have only two energy levels, the ‘0’ and the ‘1’. However, unlike classical bits, qubits can exist in superpositions, meaning they can simultaneously be in a combination of the ‘0’ and ‘1’ states. Spins in real devices also interact with light and vibrations known as bosons, greatly complicating calculations.

In a new publication in Physical Review Letters (“Fast quantum state preparation and bath dynamics using non-Gaussian variational Ansatz and quantum optimal control”), researchers in Amsterdam demonstrate a way to describe spin-boson systems and use this to efficiently configure quantum devices in a desired state.

Quantum devices use the quirky behaviour of quantum particles to perform tasks that go beyond what ‘classical’ machines can do, including quantum computing, simulation, quantum sensing, quantum communication and quantum metrology. These devices can take many forms, such as a collection of superconducting circuits, or a lattice of atoms or ions held in place by lasers or electric fields.

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