Archive for the ‘nuclear energy’ category

Sep 29, 2022

Nuclear fusion breakthrough as scientists crack vital code for ‘holy grail’ energy source

Posted by in categories: innovation, nuclear energy

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Sep 27, 2022

Microrobots for treating neurological diseases through intra-nasal administration

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, nuclear energy, robotics/AI

The joint research team of Professor Choi Hongsoo at Robotics Engineering, DGIST, a senior researcher Jinyoung Kim from DGIST-ETH Microrobotics Research Center, and the research team of Professor Sung Won Kim at Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital of the Catholic University, made a breakthrough for the improvement of the therapeutic efficacy and safety in stem cell-based treatments.

The team developed a magnetically powered human nuclear transfer (hNTSC)-based and a method of minimally invasive of therapeutic agents into the brain via the intranasal pathway. And they also accomplished transplanting the developed stem cell-based microrobot into brain tissue through the intranasal pathway that bypasses the . The proposed method is superior in efficacy and safety compared to the conventional surgical method and is expected to bring new possibilities of treating various intractable neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and brain tumors, in the future.

The limitation of stem cell therapy is the difficulty in delivering an exact amount of stem to an accurate targeted location deep in the body where the treatment is with high risk. Another limitation is that both efficacy and safety of the treatment are low owing to a large amount of the therapeutic agent loss during delivery, while the cost of the treatment is high. In particular, when delivering stem cells into the brain through blood, the efficiency of cell delivery may decrease owing to the “blood-brain barrier,” which is a unique and specific component of the cerebrovascular network.

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Sep 26, 2022

Nanopore-based technologies beyond DNA sequencing

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, chemistry, genetics, nuclear energy

Ideally, the nanopore dimensions should be comparable to those of the analyte for the presence of the analyte to produce a measurable change in the ionic current amplitude above the noise level. Nanopores can be formed in several ways, with a wide range of pore diameters. Biological nanopores are formed by the self-assembly of either protein subunits, peptides or even DNA scaffolds in lipid bilayers or block copolymer membranes1,3,6,17,18. They possess atomically precise dimensions controlled by biopolymer sequences, providing the ability to recognize biomolecules with constriction diameters of ~1–10 nm. Solid-state nanopores are crafted in thin inorganic or plastic membranes (for example, SiNx), which allows the nanopores to have extended diameters of up to hundreds of nanometres, permitting the entry or analysis of large biomolecules and complexes. The tools for fabricating solid-state nanopores, which include electron/ion milling4,5, laser-based optical etching19,20 and the dielectric breakdown of ultrathin solid membranes21,22, can be used to manipulate nanopore size at the nanometre scale, but allow only limited control over the surface structure at the atomic level in contrast to biological nanopores. The chemical modification and genetic engineering of biological nanopores, or the introduction of biomolecules to functionalize solid-state nanopores23, can further enhance the interactions between a nanopore and analytes, improving the overall sensitivity and selectivity of the device2,17,24,25,26. This feature allows nanopores to controllably capture, identify and transport a wide variety of molecules and ions from bulk solution.

Nanopore technology was initially developed for the practicable stochastic sensing of ions and small molecules2,27,28. Subsequently, many developmental efforts were focused on DNA sequencing1,7,8,9. Now, however, nanopore applications extend well beyond sequencing, as the methodology has been adapted to analyse molecular heterogeneities and stochastic processes in many different biochemical systems (Fig. 1). First, a key advantage of nanopores lies in their ability to successively capture many single molecules one after the other at a relatively high rate, which allows nanopores to explore large populations of molecules at the single-molecule level in reasonable timeframes. Second, nanopores essentially convert the structural and chemical properties of the analytes into a measurable ionic current signal, even achieving enantiomer discrimination29. The technology can be used to report on multiple molecular features while circumventing the need for labelling chemistries, which may complicate the overall analysis process and affect the molecular structures. For example, nanopores can discriminate nearly 13 different amino acids in a label-free manner, including some with minute structural differences30. An important aspect is the ability of nanopores to identify species31 that lack suitable labels for signal amplification or whose information is hidden in the noise of analytical devices. Consequently, nanopores may serve well in molecular diagnostic applications required for precision medicine, which achieves the identification of nucleic acid, protein or metabolite analytes and other biomarkers11,32,33,34,35. Third, nanopores provide a well-defined scaffold for controllably designing and constructing biomimetic systems, which involve a complex network of biomolecular interactions. These nanopore systems track the binding dynamics of transported biomolecules as they interact with nanopore surfaces, hence serving as a platform for unravelling complex biological processes (for example, the transport properties of nuclear pore complexes)36,37,38,39. Fourth, chemical groups can be spatially aligned within a protein nanopore, providing a confined chemical environment for site-selective or regioselective covalent chemistry. This strategy has been used to engineer protein nanoreactors to monitor bond-breaking and bond-making events40,41.

Here we discuss the latest advances in nanopore technologies beyond DNA sequencing and the future trajectory of the field, as well as the opportunities and main challenges for the next decade. We specifically address the emerging nanopore methods for protein analysis and protein sequencing, single-molecule covalent chemistry, single-molecule analysis of clinical samples and insights into the use of biomimetic pores for analysing complex biological processes.

Sep 18, 2022

China set to become world’s first country to achieve nuclear fusion power

Posted by in category: nuclear energy

Peng Xianjue unveils plans for combined fusion-fission reactor that could make China world’s first to achieve the elusive viable energy source.

Sep 15, 2022

China to produce clean energy with nuclear fusion by 2028, top weapons expert claims

Posted by in categories: engineering, nuclear energy, physics

So far, Chinese scientists have achieved a reaction running at a slightly cooler 70 million degrees celsius for more than 17 minutes.

China aspires to produce unlimited clean energy through nuclear fusion by 2028.

The “world’s largest” pulsed-power plant will be built in Chengdu, Sichuan province, according to Professor Peng Xianjue of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, The Independent reported on Wednesday.

Sep 14, 2022

China Discovers Stunning Crystal on the Moon, Nuclear Fusion Fuel for Limitless Energy

Posted by in categories: nuclear energy, space

ABSTRACT breaks down mind-bending scientific research, future tech, new discoveries, and major breakthroughs. China has discovered a crystal from the Moon made of a previously unknown…

Sep 13, 2022

Fast Neutron Reactor — Safe Power for the Future with Roger Blomquist, PhD USN Ret

Posted by in categories: cosmology, nuclear energy, space travel

Plentiful, safe, energy that burns up nuclear waste as fuel could be provided as soon as we build these reactor, There is no excuse for us freezing this winter! Watch and learn. Share widely to get the word out!

Worm-hole generators by the pound mass:

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Sep 13, 2022

Chinese megawatt-level space nuclear reactor passes review

Posted by in categories: nuclear energy, space

Sep 11, 2022

Ian Hutchinson: Nuclear Fusion, Plasma Physics, and Religion

Posted by in categories: existential risks, military, nuclear energy, physics, robotics/AI

Ian Hutchinson’s concerns for existential risk after minute 42.

Ian Hutchinson is a nuclear engineer and plasma physicist at MIT. He has made a number of important contributions in plasma physics including the magnetic confinement of plasmas seeking to enable fusion reactions, which is the energy source of the stars, to be used for practical energy production. Current nuclear reactors are based on fission as we discuss. Ian has also written on the philosophy of science and the relationship between science and religion.

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Sep 8, 2022

Nuclear fusion reactor in Korea reaches 100 million degrees Celsius

Posted by in category: nuclear energy

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