Archive for the ‘information science’ category: Page 12

May 27, 2021

Atoms viewed at highest ever resolution

Posted by in categories: information science, particle physics

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a technique that involves beaming electrons through a specimen to form an image. This enables the generation of significantly higher resolution than traditional optical microscopes. While the latter devices are typically limited to around 1000x magnification due to the resolving power of visible light, TEM can provide zoom capabilities that are orders of magnitude greater – surpassing even a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

In recent years, TEM instruments have begun to reach extraordinary levels of detail. Spatial resolutions are now edging into the realm of individual atoms, measuring less than 0.0000005 millimetres (mm).

However, TEM is prone to lens aberrations and multiple scattering, limiting its use to samples thin enough to let electrons pass through. The process is technically challenging and requires additional tools to perform. In 2018, researchers at Cornell University offered a potential solution. They built a high-powered detector combined with a new algorithm-driven process called ptychography. This achieved a new record for microscopic resolution, tripling the previous state-of-the-art.

May 26, 2021

Bioengineers Develop Algorithm to Compare Cells Across Species – With Striking Results

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biological, evolution, information science

Researchers created an algorithm to identify similar cell types from species – including fish, mice, flatworms and sponges – that have diverged for hundreds of millions of years, which could help fill in gaps in our understanding of evolution.

Cells are the building blocks of life, present in every living organism. But how similar do you think your cells are to a mouse? A fish? A worm?

Comparing cell types in different species across the tree of life can help biologists understand how cell types arose and how they have adapted to the functional needs of different life forms. This has been of increasing interest to evolutionary biologists in recent years because new technology now allows sequencing and identifying all cells throughout whole organisms. “There’s essentially a wave in the scientific community to classify all types of cells in a wide variety of different organisms,” explained Bo Wang, an assistant professor of bioengineering at Stanford University.

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May 26, 2021

Simple Diagnostic Tool Predicts Individual Risk of Alzheimer’s

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, information science, neuroscience

Summary: A new algorithm that uses data from memory tests and blood samples is able to accurately predict an individual’s risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease.

Source: Lund University.

Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have developed an algorithm that combines data from a simple blood test and brief memory tests, to predict with great accuracy who will develop Alzheimer’s disease in the future.

May 26, 2021

Google Strikes Deal With Hospital Chain to Develop Healthcare Algorithms

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, information science

Google and national hospital chain HCA will work to develop algorithms to help improve operating efficiency, monitor patients and guide doctors’ decisions.

May 25, 2021

Probing deeper into origins of cosmic rays

Posted by in categories: information science, particle physics, space travel

Cosmic rays are high-energy atomic particles continually bombarding Earth’s surface at nearly the speed of light. Our planet’s magnetic field shields the surface from most of the radiation generated by these particles. Still, cosmic rays can cause electronic malfunctions and are the leading concern in planning for space missions.

Researchers know cosmic rays originate from the multitude of stars in the Milky Way, including our sun, and other galaxies. The difficulty is tracing the particles to specific sources, because the turbulence of interstellar gas, plasma, and dust causes them to scatter and rescatter in different directions.

In AIP Advances, University of Notre Dame researchers developed a to better understand these and other cosmic ray transport characteristics, with the goal of developing algorithms to enhance existing detection techniques.

May 25, 2021

The MIT humanoid robot: A dynamic robotic that can perform acrobatic behaviors

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Creating robots that can perform acrobatic movements such as flips or spinning jumps can be highly challenging. Typically, in fact, these robots require sophisticated hardware designs, motion planners and control algorithms.

Researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and University of Massachusetts Amherst recently designed a new humanoid supported by an actuator-aware kino-dynamic motion planner and a landing controller. This design, presented in a paper pre-published on arXiv, could allow the humanoid robot to perform back flips and other acrobatic movements.

“In this work, we tried to come up with realistic control algorithm to make a real humanoid robot perform acrobatic behavior such as back/front/side-flip, spinning jump, and jump over an obstacle,” Donghyun Kim, one of the researchers who developed the robot’s software and controller, told TechXplore. “To do that, we first experimentally identified the actuator performance and then represent the primary limitations in our motion planner.”

May 23, 2021

The 5 Most Important Scientific Equations of All Time

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Strong AI will make excellent scientists.

Calculating the most influential scientific equations is no easy task. But these five certainly rank in the top tier.

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May 22, 2021

Molecular Biologists Travel Back in Time – Over 3 Billion Years

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, evolution, information science

A research group working at Uppsala University has succeeded in studying ‘translation factors’ – important components of a cell’s protein synthesis machinery – that are several billion years old. By studying these ancient ‘resurrected’ factors, the researchers were able to establish that they had much broader specificities than their present-day, more specialized counterparts.

In order to survive and grow, all cells contain an in-house protein synthesis factory. This consists of ribosomes and associated translation factors that work together to ensure that the complex protein production process runs smoothly. While almost all components of the modern translational machinery are well known, until now scientists did not know how the process evolved.

The new study, published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution, took the research group led by Professor Suparna Sanyal of the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology on an epic journey back into the past. A previously published study used a special algorithm to predict DNA sequences of ancestors of an important translation factor called elongation factor thermo-unstable, or EF-Tu, going back billions of years. The Uppsala research group used these DNA sequences to resurrect the ancient bacterial EF-Tu proteins and then to study their properties.

May 22, 2021

Human-like robot creates creepy self-portraits

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

A robotic artist powered by AI algorithms has created realistic self-portraits that question the limits of artificial intelligence and what it means to be human.

May 22, 2021

Scientists Just Made A Quantum Computing Breakthrough!!

Posted by in categories: information science, particle physics, quantum physics, supercomputing

Keep watching to look at three of the most fantastic quantum breakthroughs that bring liberation and freedom to the world of science today! Subscribe to Futurity for more videos.

#quantum #quantumcomputing #google.

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