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Sep 20, 2023

Half-million-year-old wooden structure unearthed in Zambia

Posted by in category: futurism

Ancient timber preserved in a riverbed suggests humans were building wooden structures 500,000 years ago.

Sep 20, 2023

Photonic chips could lower energy consumption from data centres

Posted by in categories: computing, space

Data centre energy consumption could be cut with new, ‘breakthrough’ photonic chips that are more efficient than today’s chips.

Data centres can consume up to 50 times more energy per square foot of floor space than a typical office building and account for roughly 2 per cent of all electricity use in the US.

In recent years, the number of data centres has risen rapidly due to soaring demand from the likes of Facebook, Amazon, Microsoft and Google.

Sep 20, 2023

Laser Beam Sends Electricity Nearly 100 Feet Through the Air

Posted by in categories: electronics, mobile phones

😗😁😘 Year 2022

Electricity can be streamed wirelessly across a room through thin air, researchers have found.

Scientists from Seoul, South Korea, have figured out how to transmit 400 milliwatts (mW) of electricity over nearly 100 feet using infrared laser light, according to research published in the journal Optics Express.

Continue reading “Laser Beam Sends Electricity Nearly 100 Feet Through the Air” »

Sep 20, 2023

NASA’s Parker Solar Probe flies through major coronal mass ejection — and survives to tell the tale

Posted by in categories: particle physics, space

This will be good for future deep space spaceships faring high energy ejections on their hulls.

The sun-kissing spacecraft watched as dust particles were displaced across 6 million miles (9.7 million kilometers).

Sep 20, 2023

Clinical trial of HIV vaccine begins in United States and South Africa

Posted by in category: biotech/medical

Novel vaccine includes NIH-funded technology in development since 2004.

Sep 20, 2023

Recoiling black holes could move at nearly one-tenth the speed of light

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

Knowing black holes’ speed after being kicked by gravitational waves can reveal how much energy converging black holes can release.

Sep 20, 2023

More Informative Together Than Apart

Posted by in category: chemistry

The concurrent analysis of two measurements of a biochemical signaling network can provide more information than two separate probes of the datasets.

Sep 20, 2023

Self-Repelling Species Still Self-Organize

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biological, chemistry, particle physics

Many biological processes depend on chemical reactions that are localized in space and time and therefore require catalytic components that self-organize. The collective behavior of these active particles depends on their chemotactic movement—how they sense and respond to chemical gradients in the environment. Mixtures of such active catalysts generate complex reaction networks, and the process by which self-organization emerges in these networks presents a puzzle. Jaime Agudo-Canalejo of the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Germany, and his colleagues now show that the phenomenon of self-organization depends strongly on the network topology [1]. The finding provides new insights for understanding microbiological systems and for engineering synthetic catalytic colloids.

In a biological metabolic network, catalysts convert substrates into products. The product of one catalyst species acts as the substrate for another species—and so on. Agudo-Canalejo and his team modeled a three-species system. First, building on a well-established continuum theory for catalytically active species that diffuse along chemical gradients, they showed that systems where each species responds chemotactically only to its own substrate cannot self-organize unless one species is self-attracting. Next, they developed a model that allowed species to respond to both their substrates and their products. Pair interactions between different species in this more complex model drove an instability that spread throughout the three-species system, causing the catalysts to clump together. Surprisingly, this self-organization process occurred even among particles that were individually self-repelling.

The researchers say that their discovery of the importance of network topology—which catalyst species affect and are affected by which substrates and products—could open new directions in studies of active matter, informing both origin-of-life research and the design of shape-shifting functional structures.

Sep 20, 2023

First Light for a Next-Generation Light Source

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum physics

X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) first came into existence two decades ago. They have since enabled pioneering experiments that “see” both the ultrafast and the ultrasmall. Existing devices typically generate short and intense x-ray pulses at a rate of around 100 x-ray pulses per second. But one of these facilities, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in California, is set to eclipse this pulse rate. The LCLS Collaboration has now announced “first light” for its upgraded machine, LCLS-II. When it is fully up and running, LCLS-II is expected to fire one million pulses per second, making it the world’s most powerful x-ray laser.

The LCLS-II upgrade signifies a quantum leap in the machine’s potential for discovery, says Robert Schoenlein, the LCLS’s deputy director for science. Now, rather than “demonstration” experiments on simple, model systems, scientists will be able to explore complex, real-world systems, he adds. For example, experimenters could peer into biological systems at ambient temperatures and physiological conditions, study photochemical systems and catalysts under the conditions in which they operate, and monitor nanoscale fluctuations of the electronic and magnetic correlations thought to govern the behavior of quantum materials.

The XFEL was first proposed in 1992 to tackle the challenge of building an x-ray laser. Conventional laser schemes excite large numbers of atoms into states from which they emit light. But excited states with energies corresponding to x-ray wavelengths are too short-lived to build up a sizeable excited-state population. XFELs instead rely on electrons traveling at relativistic speed through a periodic magnetic array called an undulator. Moving in a bunch, the electrons wiggle through the undulator, emitting x-ray radiation that interacts multiple times with the bunch and becomes amplified. The result is a bright x-ray beam with laser coherence.

Sep 20, 2023

Breakneck Outflows from Earth’s Most Explosive Eruption

Posted by in categories: climatology, internet, particle physics

The 2022 eruption of a partially submerged volcano near Tonga produced ejecta that hurtled at 122 kilometers per hour—as determined by timing the ensuing rupture of a seafloor cable.

On January 15, 2022, Earth experienced its most explosive volcanic eruption in 140 years at Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai, a partially submerged volcano in the Pacific Ocean near the Kingdom of Tonga’s main island. Now Michael Clare and Isobel Yeo of the UK’s National Oceanography Centre and their colleagues have determined the maximum speed of the underwater rock flows associated with this event [1]. Their study constitutes the most detailed investigation into the underwater aftermath of a powerful volcanic eruption and opens a new window onto a broad class of particle-laden flows.

The eruption at Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai hurled more than 6 km3 of debris up to a height of 57 km. When that ejecta plunged back to Earth, some of it struck the volcano’s steep underwater slopes, launching torrents of water-entrained sediment outward across the seafloor. Seven minutes after the initial eruption, Tonga lost its internet connection to the rest of the world, an event that Clare, Yeo, and their colleagues used to deduce the speed at which the entrained material moved.

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