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Archive for the ‘physics’ category: Page 16

Dec 12, 2018

Silica paradox: Scientists discover seemingly ‘impossible’ material

Posted by in categories: chemistry, physics, supercomputing

An international team of physicists and materials scientists from NUST MISIS, Bayerisches Geoinstitut (Germany), Linkoping University (Sweden), and the California Institute of Technology (U.S.) has discovered an “impossible” modification of silica-coesite-IV and coasite-V materials, which seems to defy the generally accepted rules for the formation of chemical bonds in inorganic materials formulated by Linus Pauling, who won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for that discovery. The research results were published in Nature Communications on November 15th, 2018.

According to Pauling’s rules, the fragments of the atomic lattice in inorganic materials are connected by vertices, because bonding by faces is the most energy-intensive way to form a chemical connection. Therefore, it does not exist in nature. However, scientists have proved, both experimentally and theoretically, using NUST MISIS’ supercomputer, that it is possible to form such a connections if the materials are at ultra-high pressure conditions. The obtained results show that fundamentally new classes of materials exist at extreme conditions.

“In our work, we have synthesized and described metastable phases of high-pressure silica: coesite-IV and coesite-V. Their crystal structures are drastically different from any of the earlier described models,” says Igor Abrikosov, leader of the theoretical research team. “Two newly discovered coesites contain octahedrons SiO6, that, contrary to Pauling’s rule, are connected through common face, which is the most energy-intensive chemical connection. Our results show that the possible silicate magmas in the lower mantle of the Earth can have , which makes these magmas more compressible than predicted before.”

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Dec 11, 2018

Scientists identify vast underground ecosystem containing billions of micro-organisms

Posted by in categories: chemistry, physics

The team combines 1,200 scientists from 52 countries in disciplines ranging from geology and microbiology to chemistry and physics. A year before the conclusion of their 10-year study, they will present an amalgamation of findings to date before the American Geophysical Union’s annual meeting opens this week.


Global team of scientists find ecosystem below earth that is twice the size of world’s oceans.

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Dec 10, 2018

Physics Suggests That Our Dreams Might Be Glimpses Of Other Dimensions

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

If you have ever looked into the ‘many world’s theory’ you know that the world we live in is quite possibly one of many. Regardless of the multiverse hypotheses, you choose to follow/look into each one is truly fascinating for a number of reasons.

Basically, most of them touch on how there are many different worlds, universes, dimensions, or whatever you would like to call them. Each one the same as our own but also different in some way. For instance, in another world, you might be living the same life as you are now but perhaps politics had gone in a different direction. Maybe all of the presidents that were elected here in the US were opposite from how they are in our world. Maybe everything is the same except for you have different colored hair? The differences between worlds could be minuscule or extreme, it all varies.

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Dec 9, 2018

The Key to Understanding AI May be Buried in the Laws of Physics

Posted by in categories: mathematics, physics, robotics/AI, space

Deep learning has been making it possible for powerful machines to approximate and imitate abilities and techniques once thought to be uniquely human. Mathematicians have struggled to explain how they work so well and may now get some answers by looking outside mathematics and into the nature of the universe.

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Dec 9, 2018

Topological-physics pioneer Shoucheng Zhang dies

Posted by in category: physics

Theoretical physicist was among the first to predict that the phenomenon of topology could lead to exotic states of matter.

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Dec 6, 2018

Astronomers Think They’ve Figured Out the Raging Swirls of Gas Around Supermassive Black Holes

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

There are churning, hellish, hot-and-cold gas storms swirling around our universe’s supermassive black holes. But the scientists who discovered them would prefer you call them “fountains.”

That’s a change from “donuts,” the term researchers previously used to describe the roiling masses. But a paper published Oct. 30 in The Astrophysical Journal reveals that the donut model of the mass around black holes may have been too simplistic.

About two decades ago, researchers noticed that the monster black holes at the centers of galaxies tended to be obscured by clouds of matter — matter that wasn’t falling into the black holes but rather circulating nearby. But astronomers couldn’t get a clear look at those clouds. They were able to simulate the currents around black holes, though, as in this example published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters in 2002, and they concluded that those clouds were donut-shaped — gas falling toward the black hole, getting heated up by proximity and bouncing away, only to fall back toward it again.[What’s That? Your Physics Questions Answered].

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Dec 5, 2018

Modeling the Microbiome

Posted by in categories: biological, health, mathematics, physics

What the study shows, the researchers said, is that the interactions between the bacterial populations are as significant to the host’s overall fitness as their presence — the microbiome’s influence cannot be solely attributed to the presence or absence of individual species. “In a sense,” said Jones, “the microbiome’s influence on the host is more than the sum of its parts.”


The gut microbiome — the world of microbes that inhabit the human intestinal tract — has captured the interest of scientists and clinicians for its critical role in health. However, parsing which of those microbes are responsible for effects on our wellbeing remains a mystery.

Taking us one step closer to solving this puzzle, UC Santa Barbara physicists Eric Jones and Jean Carlson have developed a mathematical approach to analyze and model interactions between gut bacteria in fruit flies. This method could lead to a more sophisticated understanding of the complex interactions between human gut microbes.

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Dec 5, 2018

Bringing balance to the universe: New theory could explain missing 95 percent of the cosmos

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses ‘negative mass.” If you were to push a negative mass, it would accelerate towards you. This astonishing new theory may also prove right a prediction that Einstein made 100 years ago.

Our current, widely recognised model of the Universe, called LambdaCDM, tells us nothing about what dark and dark are like physically. We only know about them because of the gravitational effects they have on other, observable matter.

This , published today in Astronomy and Astrophysics, by Dr. Jamie Farnes from the Oxford e-Research Centre, Department of Engineering Science, offers a new explanation. Dr. Farnes says: “We now think that both dark matter and dark energy can be unified into a fluid which possesses a type of ‘negative gravity,” repelling all other material around them. Although this matter is peculiar to us, it suggests that our cosmos is symmetrical in both positive and negative qualities.”

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Dec 5, 2018

Scientists’ collection of gravitational waves just got a lot bigger

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

The biggest black hole merger yet seen created one set of the spacetime ripples.

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Dec 4, 2018

Scientists invented a new material that gets thicker as you stretch it

Posted by in categories: materials, physics

Most of us think we have a pretty solid grasp on basic physics, and one of the assumptions we’ve come to form is that any material gets thinner as it’s stretched. It makes sense, since the same amount of material spread over a larger area would have to mean that there’s less of it in any one spot, right?

Not so fast. Researchers led by Dr. Devesh Mistry of the University of Leeds invented a new synthetic material that gets thicker as it’s being stretched. The material, which is described in detail in a new paper published in Nature Communications, is one of few that exhibit “auxetic” properties, which means they expand instead of contracting when tugged on from different directions.

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