Archive for the ‘mathematics’ category

Aug 10, 2022

Math error: A new study overturns 100-year-old understanding of color perception

Posted by in categories: computing, mathematics, physics, space

A new study corrects an important error in the 3D mathematical space developed by the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger and others, and used by scientists and industry for more than 100 years to describe how your eye distinguishes one color from another. The research has the potential to boost scientific data visualizations, improve TVs and recalibrate the textile and paint industries.

“The assumed shape of color space requires a paradigm shift,” said Roxana Bujack, a computer scientist with a background in mathematics who creates scientific visualizations at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Bujack is lead author of the paper by a Los Alamos team in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on the mathematics of color perception.

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Aug 9, 2022

Quantum in 2027: Take a quantum leap into the future of IT

Posted by in categories: computing, mathematics, quantum physics

Quantum computing will change everything.

“I think I can safely say that nobody really understands quantum mechanics,” renowned physicist Richard Feynman stated once. That shouldn’t come as a big surprise as quantum physics has a reputation for being exceptionally enigmatic. This was the selling point for the quantum physicist Dr. Shohini Ghose from Wilfrid Laurier University.

Having always excelled at mathematics and physics, Ghose was always interested in mysteries, detective stories, and mathematics. This led her to an intense fascination with physics, as she quickly discovered that she could use mathematics to help solve the mysteries of the universe.

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Aug 7, 2022

New mapping method could aid exploration of moon, Mars and beyond

Posted by in categories: mapping, mathematics, space

Researchers find mathematical trick to combining planetary surface data.

Researchers have discovered a method for making high-resolution maps of planetary surfaces like the moon’s by combining available imagery and topography data.

Mapping the complex and diverse surface of a world like the moon in detailed resolution is challenging because laser altimeters, which measure changes in altitudes, operate at much lower resolution than cameras. And although photographs offer a sense of surface features, it’s difficult to translate images into specific heights and depths.

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Aug 5, 2022

Quantum control for advanced technology: Past and present

Posted by in categories: engineering, mathematics, quantum physics

One of the cornerstones of the implementation of quantum technology is the creation and manipulation of the shape of external fields that can optimize the performance of quantum devices. Known as quantum optimal control, this set of methods comprises a field that has rapidly evolved and expanded over recent years.

A new review paper published in EPJ Quantum Technology and authored by Christiane P. Koch, Dahlem Center for Complex Quantum Systems and Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universität Berlin along with colleagues from across Europe assesses recent progress in the understanding of the controllability of quantum systems as well as the application of quantum control to quantum technologies. As such, it lays out a potential roadmap for future .

While quantum optimal control builds on conventional control theory encompassing the interface of applied mathematics, engineering, and physics, it must also factor in the quirks and counter-intuitive nature of quantum physics.

Aug 5, 2022

Artificial intelligence discovers new physics variables!

Posted by in categories: mathematics, physics, robotics/AI, space

Analysing pendulum videos, the artificial intelligence tool identified variables not present in current mathematics.

An artificial intelligence tool has examined physical systems and not surprisingly, found new ways of describing what it found.

How do we make sense of the universe? There’s no manual. There’s no prescription.

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Aug 5, 2022

Futureseek Daily Link Review; 05 August 2022

Posted by in categories: cosmology, cybercrime/malcode, economics, mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics, robotics/AI, space travel, surveillance

* At Long Last, Mathematical Proof That Black Holes Are Stable * Who Gets to Work in the Digital Economy? * Mice produce rat sperm with technique that could help conservation.

* Quantum computer can simulate infinitely many chaotic particles * Radar / AI & ML: Scaling False Peaks * Cyber security for the human world | George Loukas | TEDx.

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Aug 4, 2022

New algorithm aces university math course questions

Posted by in categories: education, information science, mathematics, robotics/AI

Multivariable calculus, differential equations, linear algebra—topics that many MIT students can ace without breaking a sweat—have consistently stumped machine learning models. The best models have only been able to answer elementary or high school-level math questions, and they don’t always find the correct solutions.

Now, a multidisciplinary team of researchers from MIT and elsewhere, led by Iddo Drori, a lecturer in the MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), has used a to solve university-level math problems in a few seconds at a human level.

The model also automatically explains solutions and rapidly generates new problems in university math subjects. When the researchers showed these machine-generated questions to , the students were unable to tell whether the questions were generated by an algorithm or a human.

Aug 3, 2022

Time is the increase of order, not disorder

Posted by in categories: cosmology, mathematics, particle physics

The received view in physics is that the direction of time is provided by the second law of thermodynamics, according to which the passage of time is measured by ever-increasing disorder in the universe. This view, Julian Barbour argues, is wrong. If we reject Newton’s faulty assumptions about the existence of absolute space and time, Newtonian dynamics can be shown to provide a very different arrow of time. Its direction, according to this theory, is given by the increase in the complexity and order of a system of particles, exactly the opposite of what the received view about time suggests.

Two of the most established beliefs of contemporary cosmology are that the universe is expanding and that the direction of the arrow of time in the universe is defined by ever-increasing disorder (entropy), as described by the second law of thermodynamics. But both of these beliefs rest on shaky ground. In saying that the universe is expanding, physicists implicitly assume its size is measured by a rod that exists outside the universe, providing an absolute scale. It’s the last vestige of Newton’s absolute space and should have no place in modern cosmology. And in claiming that entropy is what gives time its arrow, physicists uncritically apply the laws of thermodynamics, originally discovered through the study of steam engines, to the universe as a whole. That too needs to be questioned.

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Jul 30, 2022

Wireless Power Transfer Using Harvested Radio Frequency Energy with Magnetic Resonance Coupling to Charge Mobile Device Batteries

Posted by in categories: energy, mathematics

This research paper presents the design of a wireless power transfer (WPT) circuit integrated with magnetic resonance coupling (MRC) and harvested radio frequency (RF) energy to wirelessly charge the battery of a mobile device. A capacitor (100 µF, 16 V) in the RF energy harvesting circuit stored the converted power, and the accumulated voltage stored in the capacitor was 9.46 V. The foundation of the proposed WPT prototype circuit included two coils (28 AWG)—a transmitter coil, and a receiver coil. The transmitter coil was energized by the alternating current (AC), which produced a magnetic field, which in turn induced a current in the receiver coil. The harvested RF energy (9.46 V) was converted into AC, which energized the transmitter coil and generated a magnetic field. The electronics in the receiver coil then converted the AC into direct current (DC), which became usable power to charge the battery of a mobile device. The experimental setup based on mathematical modeling and simulation displayed successful charging capabilities of MRC, with the alternate power source being the harvested RF energy. Mathematical formulae were applied to calculate the amount of power generated from the prototype circuit. LTSpice simulation software was applied to demonstrate the behavior of the different components in the circuit layout for effective WPT transfer.

Jul 30, 2022

Rising star: Ann Kennedy bridges gap between biology, computational theory

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, mathematics, robotics/AI

For now, the acrylic table is under construction and open only to the stuffed mouse, originally a cat toy, used to help set up the cameras. The toy squeaks when Kennedy presses it. “Usually, you do a surgery to remove the squeaker” before using them to set up experiments, says Kennedy, assistant professor of neuroscience at Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois.

The playful squeak is a startling sound in a lab that is otherwise defined by the quiet of computational modeling. Among her projects, Kennedy is expanding her work with an artificial-intelligence-driven tool called the Mouse Action Recognition System (MARS) that can automatically classify mouse social behaviors. She also uses her modeling work to study how different brain areas and cell types interact with one another, and to connect neural activity with behaviors to learn how the brain integrates sensory information. In her office on the fifth floor of Northwestern’s Ward Building in downtown Chicago, most of this work happens on computers with data, code and graphs. Quiet also prevails in a room down the hall, where Kennedy’s small group of postdoctoral researchers and technicians sit at workstations in a lab that she launched less than a year and a half ago.

Kennedy’s ability to talk about abstract concepts, with a little stuffed animal as a prop, sets her apart, her colleagues say. She is a rare theoretical neuroscientist who can translate her mathematical work into real-world experiments. “That is her gift,” says Larry Abbott, a theoretical neuroscientist at Columbia University who was Kennedy’s graduate school advisor. “She’s good at the technical stuff, but if you can’t make that reach across to the data and the experiments, a person is not going to be that effective. She’s really just great at that — finding the right mathematics to apply to the particular problem that she’s looking at.”

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