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Jul 12, 2024

Neural networks made of light can make machine learning more sustainable

Posted by in categories: robotics/AI, sustainability

Scientists propose a new way of implementing a neural network with an optical system which could make machine learning more sustainable in the future. The researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light have published their new method in Nature Physics, demonstrating a method that is much simpler than previous approaches.

Jul 12, 2024

Artificial intelligence could help make quantum computers a reality

Posted by in categories: quantum physics, robotics/AI

CSIRO research, published as a letter in Physical Review Research journal, found for the first time that AI could help process and resolve quantum errors known as qubit noise, which are generated by the nature of quantum physics.

Overcoming these errors is widely considered the largest barrier to advanced quantum computers moving from experiment to tool.

In conventional computers, information is stored and processed in “bits,” which work on the principles of binary numbers. Each bit can represent either 0 or 1. But quantum computing devices are made up of quantum bits, or “qubits.”

Jul 12, 2024

Securely propagating entanglement at the push of a button

Posted by in categories: computing, quantum physics

Entanglement, Einstein’s “spooky action at a distance,” today is THE tool of quantum information science. It is the essential resource for quantum computers and used to transmit quantum information in a future quantum network. But it is highly sensitive. It is therefore an enormous challenge to entangle resting quantum bits (qubits) with flying qubits in the form of photons “at the push of a button.”

Jul 12, 2024

A life of the mind — with Daniel Dennett

Posted by in categories: internet, neuroscience

Join the late, renowned philosopher and cognitive scientist Daniel C Dennett on a captivating journey of intellectual exploration through his own life.

Sign up as a member to watch the Q\&A here: • Q\&A: A life of the mind — Daniel Dennett.
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Jul 12, 2024

The nature of the last universal common ancestor and its impact on the early Earth system

Posted by in categories: chemistry, evolution, genetics, particle physics, space

Life’s evolutionary timescale is typically calibrated to the oldest fossil occurrences. However, the veracity of fossil discoveries from the early Archaean period has been contested11,12. Relaxed Bayesian node-calibrated molecular clock approaches provide a means of integrating the sparse fossil and geochemical record of early life with the information provided by molecular data; however, constraining LUCA’s age is challenging due to limited prokaryote fossil calibrations and the uncertainty in their placement on the phylogeny. Molecular clock estimates of LUCA13,14,15 have relied on conserved universal single-copy marker genes within phylogenies for which LUCA represented the root. Dating the root of a tree is difficult because errors propagate from the tips to the root of the dated phylogeny and information is not available to estimate the rate of evolution for the branch incident on the root node. Therefore, we analysed genes that duplicated before LUCA with two (or more) copies in LUCA’s genome16. The root in these gene trees represents this duplication preceding LUCA, whereas LUCA is represented by two descendant nodes. Use of these universal paralogues also has the advantage that the same calibrations can be applied at least twice. After duplication, the same species divergences are represented on both sides of the gene tree17,18 and thus can be assumed to have the same age. This considerably reduces the uncertainty when genetic distance (branch length) is resolved into absolute time and rate. When a shared node is assigned a fossil calibration, such cross-bracing also serves to double the number of calibrations on the phylogeny, improving divergence time estimates. We calibrated our molecular clock analyses using 13 calibrations (see ‘Fossil calibrations’ in Supplementary Information). The calibration on the root of the tree of life is of particular importance. Some previous studies have placed a younger maximum constraint on the age of LUCA based on the assumption that life could not have survived Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) (~3.7–3.9 billion years ago (Ga))19. However, the LHB hypothesis is extrapolated and scaled from the Moon’s impact record, the interpretation of which has been questioned in terms of the intensity, duration and even the veracity of an LHB episode20,21,22,23. Thus, the LHB hypothesis should not be considered a credible maximum constraint on the age of LUCA. We used soft-uniform bounds, with the maximum-age bound based on the time of the Moon-forming impact (4,510 million years ago (Ma) ± 10 Myr), which would have effectively sterilized Earth’s precursors, Tellus and Theia13. Our minimum bound on the age of LUCA is based on low δ98 Mo isotope values indicative of Mn oxidation compatible with oxygenic photosynthesis and, therefore, total-group Oxyphotobacteria in the Mozaan Group, Pongola Supergroup, South Africa24,25, dated minimally to 2,954 Ma ± 9 Myr (ref. 26).

Our estimates for the age of LUCA are inferred with a concatenated and a partitioned dataset, both consisting of five pre-LUCA paralogues: catalytic and non-catalytic subunits from ATP synthases, elongation factor Tu and G, signal recognition protein and signal recognition particle receptor, tyrosyl-tRNA and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases, and leucyl-and valyl-tRNA synthetases27. Marginal densities (commonly referred to as effective priors) fall within calibration densities (that is, user-specified priors) when topologically adjacent calibrations do not overlap temporally, but may differ when they overlap, to ensure the relative age relationships between ancestor-descendant nodes. We consider the marginal densities a reasonable interpretation of the calibration evidence given the phylogeny; we are not attempting to test the hypothesis that the fossil record is an accurate temporal archive of evolutionary history because it is not28.

Jul 12, 2024

Is OI the New AI? Questions Surrounding “Brainoware”

Posted by in categories: law, robotics/AI

Hybridizing OI and AI, and adding what seems like a “human” component into our current advances, probably asks more questions than it answers. Here are some of those questions for the law, and how we might begin to think about them.

The Best — and Worst — of Brains

Envisioning how brain organoids might entangle themselves with the law doesn’t take a wild imaginative step; many of the questions we might have around brain organoid models are similar to the ones we’re currently grappling with regarding artificial intelligence. Would OI warrant recognition for the work it produces? And is that output protectible? Under current (and quickly-evolving) copyright developments, AI doesn’t meet the “human” requirement for authorship on its own. But AI (and OI) require human input to work, and there may be some wiggle room on AI work protection, either citing AI as a joint author with human operators, or drawing a line at a certain threshold of human control in the AI-generated work as sufficient for copyright protection.

Jul 12, 2024

OpenAI outlines plan for AGI — 5 steps to reach superintelligence

Posted by in category: robotics/AI

AGI by the end of the decade?

Jul 12, 2024

Simulation of the emergence of cell-like morphologies with evolutionary potential based on virtual molecular interactions

Posted by in category: chemistry

Ishida, T. Sci Rep 14, 2086 (2024).

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Jul 12, 2024

Brainoware: A Breakthrough AI Approach Using Brain Organoids For Advanced Computation

Posted by in categories: innovation, robotics/AI

Scientists have combined real human brain tissue with electronics to make a new kind of biocomputer.

Jul 12, 2024

Chinese scientists create robot with human brain cells

Posted by in categories: biological, robotics/AI

The breakthrough blends biological and mechanical elements, sparking ethical debates.

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