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Sep 28, 2023

What’s a Qubit? 3 Ways Scientists Build Quantum Computers

Posted by in categories: information science, mobile phones, particle physics, quantum physics, supercomputing

A complete quantum computing system could be as large as a two-car garage when one factors in all the paraphernalia required for smooth operation. But the entire processing unit, made of qubits, would barely cover the tip of your finger.

Today’s smartphones, laptops and supercomputers contain billions of tiny electronic processing elements called transistors that are either switched on or off, signifying a 1 or 0, the binary language computers use to express and calculate all information. Qubits are essentially quantum transistors. They can exist in two well-defined states—say, up and down—which represent the 1 and 0. But they can also occupy both of those states at the same time, which adds to their computing prowess. And two—or more—qubits can be entangled, a strange quantum phenomenon where particles’ states correlate even if the particles lie across the universe from each other. This ability completely changes how computations can be carried out, and it is part of what makes quantum computers so powerful, says Nathalie de Leon, a quantum physicist at Princeton University. Furthermore, simply observing a qubit can change its behavior, a feature that de Leon says might create even more of a quantum benefit. “Qubits are pretty strange. But we can exploit that strangeness to develop new kinds of algorithms that do things classical computers can’t do,” she says.

Scientists are trying a variety of materials to make qubits. They range from nanosized crystals to defects in diamond to particles that are their own antiparticles. Each comes with pros and cons. “It’s too early to call which one is the best,” says Marina Radulaski of the University of California, Davis. De Leon agrees. Let’s take a look.

Sep 28, 2023

The Tree of Life Is Losing Entire Limbs, Jeopardizing Evolution

Posted by in category: evolution

Humanity is about to suffer.

Sep 28, 2023

Single-cell lineage capture across genomic modalities with CellTag-multi reveals fate-specific gene regulatory changes

Posted by in category: futurism

To enable prospective lineage tracing with chromatin accessibility capture, we have developed ‘CellTag-multi’. CellTag-multi is based on our previous CellTagging technology, which uses sequential lentiviral delivery of CellTags (heritable random barcodes) to enable the construction of multilevel lineage trees7,16. Here we introduce a strategy in which CellTags, expressed as polyadenylated transcripts, can be captured in both scRNA-seq and scATAC-seq assays allowing for independent tracking of clonal transcriptional and epigenomic state.

We validate this method using in vitro hematopoiesis, a well-characterized model of multilineage differentiation, and demonstrate highly accurate reconstruction of lineage relationships and capture of lineage-specific progenitor cell states across scRNA-seq and scATAC-seq. Moreover, the addition of chromatin accessibility information to gene expression allows for an improvement in the prediction of differentiation outcome from early progenitor state. We also deploy CellTag-multi in the direct lineage reprogramming of fibroblasts to iEPs, to characterize early gene regulatory changes in rare subpopulations of cells that successfully reprogram. This application reveals how chromatin is remodeled following the expression of reprogramming TFs, enabling deeper insight into gene regulatory network reconfiguration. We uncover the TF Foxd2 as a facilitator of on-target reprogramming, increasing the efficiency of MEF to iEP conversion.

Sep 28, 2023

Quantum engine could power devices with an ultracold atom cloud

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

A quantum engine that works by toggling the properties of an ultracold atom cloud could one day be used to charge quantum batteries.

By Karmela Padavic-Callaghan

Sep 28, 2023

Alien life may not be carbon-based, new study suggests

Posted by in categories: alien life, chemistry

Self-sustaining chemical reactions that could support biology radically different from life as we know it might exist on many different planets using a variety of elements beyond the carbon upon which Earth’s life is based, a new study finds.

On Earth, life is based on organic compounds. These molecules are composed of carbon and often include other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur.

Sep 28, 2023

UV Photonic Optical Resonator Chips Pave Way for Miniature Communications and Quantum Computing Devices

Posted by in categories: computing, quantum physics

Advance lays the groundwork for miniature devices for spectroscopy, communications, and quantum computing. Researchers have created chip-based photonic resonators that operate in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible regions of the spectrum and exhibit a record low UV light loss. The new resonators lay the groundwork for increasing the size, complexity, and fidelity of UV photonic integrated circuit (PIC) design, which could enable new miniature chip-based devices for applications such as spectroscopic sensing, underwater communication, and quantum information processing.

Sep 28, 2023

Unlocking the Secrets of Life’s Random Rhythms: Scientists Propose Universal Framework

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Life’s random rhythms surround us–from the hypnotic, synchronized blinking of fireflies…to the back-and-forth motion of a child’s swing… to slight variations in the otherwise steady lub-dub of the human heart.

However, truly understanding these patterns—known as stochastic or random oscillations—remains beyond scientists’ grasp. Despite some progress in analyzing brain waves and heart rhythms, researchers and clinicians have been unable to compare or catalog an untold number of variations and sources.

Gaining such insight into the underlying source of oscillations “could lead to advances in neural science, cardiac science, and any number of different fields,” said Peter Thomas, a professor of applied mathematics at Case Western Reserve University.

Sep 28, 2023

A new kind of chip for quantum technology

Posted by in categories: cybercrime/malcode, engineering, information science, quantum physics, supercomputing

Today, we are living in the midst of a race to develop a quantum computer, one that could be used for practical applications. This device, built on the principles of quantum mechanics, holds the potential to perform computing tasks far beyond the capabilities of today’s fastest supercomputers. Quantum computers and other quantum-enabled technologies could foster significant advances in areas such as cybersecurity and molecular simulation, impacting and even revolutionizing fields such as online security, drug discovery and material fabrication.

An offshoot of this technological race is building what is known in scientific and engineering circles as a “”—a special type of quantum computer, constructed to solve one equation model for a specific purpose beyond the computing power of a standard computer. For example, in , a quantum could theoretically be built to help scientists simulate a specific, complex molecular interaction for closer study, deepening and speeding up drug development.

But just like building a practical, usable quantum computer, constructing a useful quantum simulator has proven to be a daunting challenge. The idea was first proposed by mathematician Yuri Manin in 1980. Since then, researchers have attempted to employ trapped ions, cold atoms and to build a quantum simulator capable of real-world applications, but to date, these methods are all still a work in progress.

Sep 28, 2023

The FTX trial is bigger than Sam Bankman-Fried

Posted by in categories: law, transportation

And potentially very embarrassing for all of crypto.

The trial of Sam Bankman-Fried is likely to be more consequential than just whether the man himself is found guilty. Depending on what evidence is introduced during the trial, it could be rough for the entire crypto industry.

“How much damage can this trial do to the already beaten-down reputation of the industry at this point?” asks Yesha Yadav, a law professor at Vanderbilt University. “This trial is going to be an excruciating moment for the industry because no one knows what kind of evidence might come out.”

Continue reading “The FTX trial is bigger than Sam Bankman-Fried” »

Sep 28, 2023

This robotic exoskeleton can help runners sprint faster

Posted by in categories: cyborgs, robotics/AI, wearables

It encourages wearers to take more steps, covering distances more quickly than they could without it.

A wearable exoskeleton can help runners increase their speed by encouraging them to take more steps, allowing them to cover short distances more quickly.

While previous studies have focused on how wearable exoskeletons can help people reduce the energy they expend while running, the new study, published today in Science Robotics, examines how wearable robots can assist runners as they sprint.

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