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Dec 7, 2023

Quantum ‘magic’ could help explain the origin of spacetime

Posted by in categories: cosmology, mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics

A quantum property dubbed “magic” could be the key to explaining how space and time emerged, a new mathematical analysis by three RIKEN physicists suggests. The research is published in the journal Physical Review D.

It’s hard to conceive of anything more basic than the fabric of spacetime that underpins the universe, but have been questioning this assumption. “Physicists have long been fascinated about the possibility that space and time are not fundamental, but rather are derived from something deeper,” says Kanato Goto of the RIKEN Interdisciplinary Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences (iTHEMS).

This notion received a boost in the 1990s, when theoretical physicist Juan Maldacena related the gravitational theory that governs spacetime to a theory involving . In particular, he imagined a hypothetical space—which can be pictured as being enclosed in something like an infinite soup can, or “bulk”—holding objects like that are acted on by gravity. Maldacena also imagined particles moving on the surface of the can, controlled by . He realized that mathematically a used to describe the particles on the boundary is equivalent to a gravitational theory describing the black holes and spacetime inside the bulk.

Dec 7, 2023

Wormholes help resolve black hole information paradox

Posted by in categories: cosmology, mathematics, quantum physics

A RIKEN physicist and two colleagues have found that a wormhole—a bridge connecting distant regions of the Universe—helps to shed light on the mystery of what happens to information about matter consumed by black holes.

Einstein’s theory of predicts that nothing that falls into a black hole can escape its clutches. But in the 1970s, Stephen Hawking calculated that black holes should emit radiation when , the theory governing the microscopic realm, is considered. “This is called black hole evaporation because the black hole shrinks, just like an evaporating water droplet,” explains Kanato Goto of the RIKEN Interdisciplinary Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences.

This, however, led to a paradox. Eventually, the black hole will evaporate entirely—and so too will any information about its swallowed contents. But this contradicts a fundamental dictum of quantum physics: that information cannot vanish from the Universe. “This suggests that general relativity and quantum mechanics as they currently stand are inconsistent with each other,” says Goto. “We have to find a unified framework for quantum gravity.”

Dec 7, 2023

Resolving the black hole ‘fuzzball or wormhole’ debate

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics, quantum physics

Black holes really are giant fuzzballs, a new study says.

The study attempts to put to rest the debate over Stephen Hawking’s famous information paradox, the problem created by Hawking’s conclusion that any data that enters a black hole can never leave. This conclusion accorded with the laws of thermodynamics, but opposed the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics.

“What we found from is that all the mass of a black hole is not getting sucked in to the center,” said Samir Mathur, lead author of the study and professor of physics at The Ohio State University. “The black hole tries to squeeze things to a point, but then the particles get stretched into these strings, and the strings start to stretch and expand and it becomes this fuzzball that expands to fill up the entirety of the black hole.”

Dec 7, 2023

Black holes really just ever-growing balls of string, researchers say

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

Black holes aren’t surrounded by a burning ring of fire after all, suggests new research.

Some physicists have believed in a “firewall” around the perimeter of a black hole that would incinerate anything sucked into its powerful gravitational pull.

But a team from The Ohio State University has calculated an explanation of what would happen if an electron fell into a typical black hole, with a mass as big as the sun.

Dec 7, 2023

What’s on the surface of a black hole? Not ‘firewall’—and nature of universe depends on it, physicist explains

Posted by in category: cosmology

Are black holes the ruthless killers we’ve made them out to be?

Samir Mathur says no.

According to the professor of physics at The Ohio State University, the recently proposed idea that have “firewalls” that destroy all they has a loophole.

Dec 7, 2023

Metamaterials and origamic metal-organic frameworks

Posted by in categories: chemistry, particle physics

Origami is a paper folding process usually associated with child’s play mostly to form a paper-folded crane, yet it is, as of recently a fascinating research topic. Origami-inspired materials can achieve mechanical properties that are difficult to achieve in conventional materials, and materials scientists are still exploring such constructs based on origami tessellation at the molecular level.

In a new report now published in Nature Communications, Eunji Jin and a research team in chemistry and particle acceleration at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea, described the development of a two-dimensional porphyrinic -, self-assembled from zinc nodes and porphyrin linkers based on tessellation.

The team combined theory and experimental outcomes to demonstrate origami mechanisms underlying the 2D porphyrinic metal-organic framework with the flexible linker as a pivoting point. The 2D tessellation hidden within the 2D metal-organic framework unveiled origami molecules at the .

Dec 7, 2023

Ultra-thin metal-organic layers prevent ice crystal formation in novel cryoprotectants

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry

Small amounts of nanometer-thin metal-organic layers efficiently protect red blood cells during freezing and thawing, as a team of researchers writing in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition has discovered. The nanolayers, made from metal-organic frameworks based on the metal hafnium, prevent ice crystal formation at very low concentrations. This effective novel cryoprotection mode could be used to develop new and more efficient cryoprotectants for the biosciences.

Cryoprotectants prevent ice crystals from forming when samples are frozen. Growing crystals can damage delicate cell membranes and cell components and disrupt cell integrity. Some solvents or polymers make good cryoprotectants; they keep ice in check by binding and disrupting their ordered assembly during ice formation.

Synthetic chemistry has yet more tricks up its sleeve for targeting and influencing ice formation in a more effective way. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are three-dimensional crystalline networks of metal ions linked by organic ligands. These ligands can be tailored to bind such as water, allowing the assembly of the water molecules into ice crystals to be very precisely tuned.

Dec 7, 2023

How to Never Be Afraid of Cancer Again

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health

Register for free and learn how to never be afraid of cancer again from health expert: Nathan Crane.

Dec 7, 2023

The Dark Side of Urbanization: Light Pollution’s Toll on Bird Migration

Posted by in categories: information science, surveillance, transportation

Are bright cities making it worse for birds during their migrations? Find out here!

A recent study published in Nature Communications examines how increased levels of artificial light, specifically in urban areas, has contributed to increased bird deaths during their annual migrations. This study comes as hundreds of birds were killed after colliding with a Chicago building, and despite a 2021 study recommending that reduced building lights would reduce bird collisions by 60 percent. This recent study holds the potential to help scientists and the public better understand how rapidly expanding urban areas are impacting bird migration and their safety.

For the study, the researchers used the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD), which is jointly operated by the U.S. Air Force, Federal Aviation Administration, and the U.S. National Weather Service, to track bird migration stopover density during spring (March 15 to June 15) and fall (August 15 to November 15) seasons between 2016 and 2020. After analyzing more than 10 million radar observations, the researchers found that light pollution was the second-highest ranked reason for birds stopping for breaks out of 49 reasons measured for the study, with the top reason being elevation.

Continue reading “The Dark Side of Urbanization: Light Pollution’s Toll on Bird Migration” »

Dec 7, 2023

“Deep Heating” of a Jupiter-Like Planet Causes New Storm to Blow

Posted by in categories: climatology, space, supercomputing

Supercomputer simulations of the weather on a hot Jupiter reveal a previously unseen storm pattern in which cyclones are repeatedly generated and destroyed.

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