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May 16, 2024

ONe Nova To Rule Them All: Rare Stellar Explosions Shape the Building Blocks of Life

Posted by in category: cosmology

New research identifies ONe novae as key sources of phosphorus, essential for life, with peak production aligning with the early Solar System.

Astronomers have proposed a new theory to explain the origin of phosphorus, one of the elements important for life on Earth. The theory suggests a type of stellar explosion known as ONe novae as a major source of phosphorus.

After the Big Bang, almost all of the matter in the Universe was comprised of hydrogen. Other elements were formed later, by nuclear reactions inside stars or when stars exploded in events known as novae or supernovae. But there are a variety of stars and a variety of ways they can explode. Astronomers are still trying to figure out which processes were important in creating the abundances of elements we see in the Universe.

May 16, 2024

Explosive Events in the Magnetosphere: Investigating Unusual Substorm in Earth’s Magnetotail

Posted by in category: energy

Using NASA ’s MMS mission data, SwRI explores unusual substorm events in Earth’s magnetotail to better understand magnetic reconnection and its effects on the global magnetosphere.

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is investigating an unusual event in the Earth’s magnetotail, the elongated extension of the planet’s magnetosphere trailing away from the Sun. SwRI scientists are examining the nature of substorms, fleeting disturbances in the magnetotail that release energy and often cause aurorae, using data from NASA’s Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission.

May 16, 2024

Super Fluffy “Cotton Candy” Exoplanet Discovery Shocks Scientists — “We Cannot Explain How This Planet Formed”

Posted by in category: space

Astronomers have discovered an enormous, low-density planet named WASP-193b, which is 50% larger than Jupiter but has a cotton candy-like density. This finding challenges current planetary formation theories, as scientists cannot explain how such a planet could form.

Astronomers have discovered a huge, fluffy oddball of a planet orbiting a distant star in our Milky Way galaxy. The discovery, reported on May 14 in the journal Nature Astronomy by researchers from at MIT, the University of Liège in Belgium, and elsewhere, is a promising key to the mystery of how such giant, super-light planets form.

The new planet, named WASP-193b, appears to dwarf Jupiter in size, yet it is a fraction of its density. The scientists found that the gas giant is 50 percent bigger than Jupiter, and about a tenth as dense — an extremely low density, comparable to that of cotton candy.

May 16, 2024

Fruit fly study reveals brain-cell circuitry that could underlie how creatures large and small see wavelengths of light

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Perceiving something—anything—in your surroundings is to become aware of what your senses are detecting. Now, Columbia University neuroscientists have identified, for the first time, brain-cell circuitry in fruit flies that converts raw sensory signals into color perceptions that can guide behavior.

May 16, 2024

New method of wavefunction matching helps solve quantum many-body problems

Posted by in categories: chemistry, particle physics, quantum physics

Strongly interacting systems play an important role in quantum physics and quantum chemistry. Stochastic methods such as Monte Carlo simulations are a proven method for investigating such systems. However, these methods reach their limits when so-called sign oscillations occur.

This problem has now been solved by an international team of researchers from Germany, Turkey, the U.S., China, South Korea and France using the new method of wavefunction matching. As an example, the masses and radii of all nuclei up to mass number 50 were calculated using this method. The results agree with the measurements, the researchers now report in the journal Nature.

All matter on Earth consists of tiny particles known as atoms. Each atom contains even smaller particles: protons, neutrons and electrons. Each of these particles follows the rules of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics forms the basis of quantum many-body theory, which describes systems with many particles, such as .

May 16, 2024

A new family of beautiful-charming tetraquarks: Study illuminates a new horizon within quantum chromodynamics

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Exploring the complex domain of subatomic particles, researchers at the The Institute of Mathematical Science (IMSc) and the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) have recently published a novel finding in the journal Physical Review Letters. Their study illuminates a new horizon within quantum chromodynamics (QCD), shedding light on exotic subatomic particles and pushing the boundaries of our understanding of the strong force.

May 16, 2024

Spooky states and figure eights: Stepping into the quantum computing ‘ring’

Posted by in categories: computing, cosmology, quantum physics

Deep in outer space, invisible hands mold the universe. One is dark matter, an unseen substance thought to bind distant galaxies. The other is dark energy, a force believed to push stellar structures apart with gravity-defying strength.

May 16, 2024

Researchers elucidate ultrafast laser-induced solid-to-overdense-plasma transitions

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, nuclear energy

The interaction of solids with high-intensity ultra-short laser pulses has enabled major technological breakthroughs over the past half-century. On the one hand, laser ablation of solids offers micromachining and miniaturization of elements in medical or telecommunication devices. On the other hand, accelerated ion beams from solids using intense lasers may pave the way for new opportunities for cancer treatment with laser-based proton therapy, fusion energy research, and analysis of cultural heritage.

May 16, 2024

Research team develops electromagnetic wave absorbers with strong absorption and broad effective bandwidth

Posted by in category: materials

A research team from the Department of Functional Composites in Composites Research Division at Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS) has successfully developed electromagnetic wave absorbers based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that enhance dielectric and magnetic losses in the gigahertz (GHz) frequency band. The research was published in the journal Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials on February 5, 2024.

May 16, 2024

Advancing transistor technology with triply-degenerate semimetal PtBi₂

Posted by in categories: computing, physics

Despite its promising characteristics in condensed matter physics, the triply-degenerate semimetal PtBi2 has been largely unexplored in practical applications, particularly in semiconductor technology. The main difficulties include a lack of empirical data on the integration of PtBi2 with existing semiconductor components and the need for innovative approaches to leverage its unique properties, such as high stability and mobility, within the constraints of current electronic manufacturing processes.

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