Aug 25, 2022

Polymorphism in metal halide perovskites

Posted by in categories: chemistry, engineering

Circa 2020 This shape changing metal discovery can lead us closer to foglet machines.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, USA. E-mail: [email protected]

Received 25th August 2020, Accepted 16th November 2020.

Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) are frontrunners among solution-processable materials for lightweight, large-area and flexible optoelectronics. These materials, with the general chemical formula AMX3, are structurally complex, undergoing multiple polymorph transitions as a function of temperature and pressure. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of polymorphism in three-dimensional MHPs as a function of composition, with A = Cs+, MA+, or FA+, M = Pb2+ or Sn2+, and X = Cl, Br, or I. In general, perovskites adopt a highly symmetric cubic structure at elevated temperatures. With decreasing temperatures, the corner-sharing MX6 octahedra tilt with respect to one another, resulting in multiple polymorph transitions to lower-symmetry tetragonal and orthorhombic structures. The temperatures at which these phase transitions occur can be tuned via different strategies, including crystal size reduction, confinement in scaffolds and (de-)pressurization.

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