Feb 23, 2020

Higgs Boson in Superconductors

Posted by in categories: materials, particle physics

Superfluid helium, describable by a two-component order parameter, exhibits only the Bogolubov mode with energy $\to 0$ at long wavelengths, while a Lorentz-invariant theory with a two-component order parameter exhibits a finite energy mode at long wavelengths (the Higgs Boson), besides the above mass-less mode. The mass-less mode moves to high energies if it couples to electromagnetic fields (the Anderson-Higgs mechanism). Superconductors, on the other hand have been theoretically and experimentally shown to exhibit both modes. This occurs because the excitations in superconductors have an (approximate) particle-hole symmetry and therefore show a similarity to Lorentz-invariant theories.

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