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May 25, 2024

These two scientists have mapped out the insides or “reachable space” of a language model using control theory, what they discovered was extremely surprising

Posted by in categories: open access, robotics/AI

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Aman Bhargava from Caltech and Cameron Witkowski from the University of Toronto to discuss their groundbreaking paper, “What’s the Magic Word? A Control Theory of LLM Prompting.” They frame LLM systems as discrete stochastic dynamical systems. This means they look at LLMs in a structured way, similar to how we analyze control systems in engineering. They explore the “reachable set” of outputs for an LLM. Essentially, this is the range of possible outputs the model can generate from a given starting point when influenced by different prompts. The research highlights that prompt engineering, or optimizing the input tokens, can significantly influence LLM outputs. They show that even short prompts can drastically alter the likelihood of specific outputs. Aman and Cameron’s work might be a boon for understanding and improving LLMs. They suggest that a deeper exploration of control theory concepts could lead to more reliable and capable language models.

Continue reading “These two scientists have mapped out the insides or ‘reachable space’ of a language model using control theory, what they discovered was extremely surprising” »

May 25, 2024

Can ChatGPT Mimic Theory of Mind? Psychology Is Probing AI’s Inner Workings

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Scientists pitted OpenAI and Meta chatbots against over 1,900 humans. The algorithms bested participants in areas like the detection of irony and faux pas.

May 25, 2024

‘Noise’ in the Machine: Human Differences in Judgment Lead to Problems for AI

Posted by in category: robotics/AI

New research says that quantifying progress in AI must account for the fact that the humans AI is measured against are actually a variable, noisy benchmark.

May 25, 2024

This Device Zaps the Spinal Cord to Give Paralyzed People Use of Their Hands Again

Posted by in category: biotech/medical

Reid was part of a 60-participant clinical trial that looked to use spinal cord stimulation to regain control of both hands. Similar treatments have shown promise in paraplegic patients, restoring the ability to walk in just a day. But those required surgery to place electrodes on the spinal cord.

ARC-EX therapy, by contrast, delivers two different types of electrical pulses through the skin—no surgery required. Developed by Grégoire Courtine and colleagues at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, the device improved hand strength, pinch, and other movements in 72 percent of participants.

Because the device is non-invasive, it’s a simple addition to physical rehabilitation programs—a sort of pilates for the fingers, explained the team. The trial only included two months of stimulation, and extending the timeline could potentially further improve results.

May 25, 2024

Scientists Discover Key Food Nutrients Linked to Slower Brain Aging

Posted by in categories: biological, food, life extension, neuroscience

Understanding the biological processes of getting older could help us lead longer lives, and stay healthier later in life – and a new study links the speed at which our brain ages with the nutrients in our diets.

Researchers from the University of Illinois and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln mapped brain scans against nutritional intake for 100 volunteers aged between 65 and 75, looking for connections between certain diets and slower brain aging.

They identified two distinct types of brain aging – and the slower paced aging was associated with nutrient intake similar to what you would get from the Mediterranean diet, shown in previous studies to be one of the best for our bodies.

May 25, 2024

Transparent metamaterial for energy-efficient regulation in building can clean itself like a lotus leaf

Posted by in categories: climatology, materials

Researchers at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) introduce a polymer-based material with unique properties in the journal Nature Communications. This material allows sunlight to enter, maintains a more comfortable indoor climate without additional energy, and cleans itself like a lotus leaf. The new development could replace glass components in walls and roofs in the future. The research team has successfully tested the material in outdoor tests on the KIT campus.

May 25, 2024

Elon Musk Criticizes Microsoft Feature That Gives PCs ‘Photographic Memory’

Posted by in categories: Elon Musk, neuroscience

The Neuralink and X.AI founder thinks Microsoft has gone too far with its AI-powered ‘Recall’ feature.

May 25, 2024

NVIDIA celebrates its most profitable and highest sales quarter EVER, stock breaches $1000+

Posted by in category: robotics/AI

NVIDIA has record quarter revenue of $26 billion, up 18% from Q4 2023, and up 262% year-on-year. AI GPUs are pure money-making machines.

May 25, 2024

PureRef 2.0 Released With Revamped UI, Drawing & GIF Support

Posted by in category: futurism

The long-awaited PureRef 2.0 update has arrived, introducing visual and performance improvements, as well as some of the most requested features.

May 25, 2024

Deciphering how crystals form in non-classical ways

Posted by in categories: innovation, materials

Recent experimental advancements have enabled more accurate and in-depth analysis of these materials during and after formation. The review article examines two decades of research on the non-classical formation pathways of soft and organic crystalline materials. It details the current theoretical understanding of how these materials form through non-classical pathways, including distinguishing the processes of nucleation and growth across models.

Advances in experimental methods, including in-line scattering/spectroscopy detection, cryo microscopy, and in situ liquid-phase characterization, and their application to studying soft and organic crystalline materials are also discussed.

These experimental techniques have provided strong evidence for non-classical crystallization pathways, leading to key breakthroughs in understanding these processes. However, the sole presence of a specific final product or intermediate does not prove that a material formed via a specific .

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