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Sep 2, 2019

Can science writing be automated?

Posted by in categories: robotics/AI, science

A team of scientists at MIT and elsewhere has developed a neural network, a form of artificial intelligence (AI), that can read scientific papers and render a plain-English summary in a sentence or two.

Image: Chelsea Turner

Sep 2, 2019

M Theory As A Matrix Model: A Conjecture

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

We suggest and motivate a precise equivalence between uncompactified eleven dimensional M-theory and the N = infinity limit of the supersymmetric matrix quantum mechanics describing D0-branes. The evidence for the conjecture consists of several correspondences between the two theories. As a consequence of supersymmetry the simple matrix model is rich enough to describe the properties of the entire Fock space of massless well separated particles of the supergravity theory. In one particular kinematic situation the leading large distance interaction of these particles is exactly described by supergravity.

The model appears to be a nonperturbative realization of the holographic principle. The membrane states required by M-theory are contained as excitations of the matrix model.

Sep 2, 2019

Stephen Hawking had pinned his hopes on ‘M-theory’ to fully explain the universe—here’s what it is

Posted by in categories: information science, particle physics

Rumour has it that Albert Einstein spent his last few hours on Earth scribbling something on a piece of paper in a last attempt to formulate a theory of everything. Some 60 years later, another legendary figure in theoretical physics, Stephen Hawking, may have passed away with similar thoughts. We know Hawking thought something called “M-theory” is our best bet for a complete theory of the universe. But what is it?

Since the formulation of Einstein’s theory of in 1915, every theoretical physicist has been dreaming of reconciling our understanding of the infinitely small world of atoms and particles with that of the infinitely large scale of the cosmos. While the latter is effectively described by Einstein’s equations, the former is predicted with extraordinary accuracy by the so-called Standard Model of fundamental interactions.

Our current understanding is that the interaction between physical objects is described by four fundamental forces. Two of them – gravity and electromagnetism – are relevant for us on a macroscopic level, we deal with them in our everyday life. The other two, dubbed strong and weak interactions, act on a very small scale and become relevant only when dealing with subatomic processes.

Sep 2, 2019

M-Theory: When tech takes us back to the future

Posted by in category: futurism

Tech prefers to be forward-facing. Like, obsessively so. What’s new? What’s next? We don’t even like to analyze and maintain what we’ve already made, let alone spend any time really looking back. After all, the interesting problems have already been solved… and where’s the money in it?

We can actually do both, and use the progress of technology to do a great service to the past. Bringing clarity, identity, context and even solving mysteries. Still usually no money in it, though.

Sep 2, 2019

M-Theory (the Theory Formerly Known as Strings)

Posted by in category: energy

Superunification underwent a major paradigm shift in 1984 when eleven-dimensional supergravity was knocked off its pedestal by ten-dimensional superstrings. This last year has witnessed a new shift of equal proportions:

Perturbative ten-dimensional superstrings have in their turn been superseded by.

A new non-perturbative theory called {\it $M$-theory}, which describes supermembranes and superfivebranes, which subsumes all five consistent string theories and whose low energy limit is, ironically, eleven-dimensional supergravity.

Sep 2, 2019

String Theory and Supersymmetry

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

By Andrew Zimmerman Jones, Daniel Robbins

According to string theory, all particles in the universe can be divided into two types: bosons and fermions. String theory predicts that a type of connection, called supersymmetry, exists between these two particle types.

Under supersymmetry, a fermion must exist for every boson and a boson for every fermion. Unfortunately, experiments have not yet detected these extra particles.

Sep 2, 2019

Supersymmetry: The Future of Physics Explained

Posted by in categories: futurism, physics

What is supersymmetry? Physicist Lawrence Krauss helps you understand the theory that could solve many of the most troublesome problems in physics.

Sep 2, 2019

Introduction to Supersymmetry

Posted by in categories: information science, mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics

20th century physics has seen two major paradigm shifts in the way we understand Mother Nature. One is quantum mechanics, and the other is relativity. The marriage between the two, called quantum field theory, conceived an enfant terrible, namely anti-matter. As a result, the number of elementary particles doubled. We believe that 21st century physics is aimed at yet another level of marriage, this time between quantum mechanics and general relativity, Einstein’s theory of gravity. The couple has not been getting along very well, resulting in mathematical inconsistencies, meaningless infinities, and negative probabilities. The key to success may be in supersymmetry, which doubles the number of particles once more.

Why was anti-matter needed? One reason was to solve a crisis in the 19th century physics of classical electromagnetism. An electron is, to the best of our knowledge, a point particle. Namely, it has no size, yet an electric charge. A charged particle inevitably produces an electric potential around it, and it also feels the potential created by itself. This leads to an infinite “self-energy” of the electron. In other words, it takes substantial energy to “pack” all the charge of an electron into small size.

On the other hand, Einstein’s famous equation says that mass of a particle determines the energy of the particle at rest. For an electron, its rest energy is known to be 0.511 MeV. For this given amount of energy, it cannot afford to “pack” itself into a size smaller than the size of a nucleus. Classical theory of electromagnetism is not a consistent theory below this distance. However, it is known that the electron is at least ten thousand times smaller than that.

Sep 2, 2019

Definition of SUPERSYMMETRY

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

The correspondence between fermions and bosons of identical mass that is postulated to have existed during the opening moments of the big bang and that relates gravity to the other forces of nature… See the full definition.

Sep 2, 2019

Supergravity Snags Super Award: $3-Million Special Breakthrough Prize

Posted by in categories: innovation, particle physics

The theory, which emerged in the 1970s as a way to unify the fundamental forces of nature, has profoundly shaped the landscape of particle physics.