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Jun 30, 2022

Blockchain not just for bitcoin. It can secure and store genomes too

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, bitcoin, blockchains, chemistry, computing, cryptocurrencies

Blockchain is a digital technology that allows a secure and decentralized record of transactions that is increasingly used for everything from cryptocurrencies to artwork. But Yale researchers have found a new use for blockchain: they’ve leveraged the technology to give individuals control of their own genomes.

Their findings are published June 29 in the journal Genome Biology.

“Our primary goal is to give ownership of genomic data back to the individual,” said senior author Mark Gerstein, the Albert L. Williams Professor of Biomedical Informatics and professor of molecular biophysics and biochemistry, of computer science, and of statistics and .

Jun 30, 2022

The century-old picture of a nerve spike is wrong: filaments fire, before membrane

Posted by in categories: information science, neuroscience, robotics/AI

Some insightful experiments have occasionally been made on the subject of this review, but those studies have had almost no impact on mainstream neuroscience. In the 1920s (Katz, E. [ 1 ]), it was shown that neurons communicate and fire even if transmission of ions between two neighboring neurons is blocked indicating that there is a nonphysical communication between neurons. However, this observation has been largely ignored in the neuroscience field, and the opinion that physical contact between neurons is necessary for communication prevailed. In the 1960s, in the experiments of Hodgkin et al. where neuron bursts could be generated even with filaments at the interior of neurons dissolved into the cell fluid [ 3 0, 4 ], they did not take into account one important question. Could the time gap between spikes without filaments be regulated? In cognitive processes of the brain, subthreshold communication that modulates the time gap between spikes holds the key to information processing [ 14 ][ 6 ]. The membrane does not need filaments to fire, but a blunt firing is not useful for cognition. The membrane’s ability to modulate time has thus far been assigned only to the density of ion channels. Such partial evidence was debated because neurons would fail to process a new pattern of spike time gaps before adjusting density. If a neuron waits to edit the time gap between two consecutive spikes until the density of ion channels modifies and fits itself with the requirement of modified time gaps, which are a few milliseconds (~20 minutes are required for ion-channel density adjustment [ 25 ]), the cognitive response would become non-functional. Thus far, many discrepancies were noted. However, no efforts were made to resolve these issues. In the 1990s, there were many reports that electromagnetic bursts or electric field imbalance in the environment cause firing [ 7 ]. However, those reports were not considered in work on modeling of neurons. This is not surprising because improvements to the Hodgkin and Huxley model made in the 1990s were ignored simply because it was too computationally intensive to automate neural networks according to the new more complex equations and, even when greater computing powers became available, these remained ignored. We also note here the final discovery of the grid-like network of actin and beta-spectrin just below the neuron membrane [ 26 ], which is directly connected to the membrane. This prompts the question: why is it present bridging the membrane and the filamentary bundles in a neuron?

The list is endless, but the supreme concern is probably the simplest question ever asked in neuroscience. What does a nerve spike look like reality? The answer is out there. It is a 2D ring shaped electric field perturbation, since the ring has a width, we could also state that a nerve spike is a 3D structure of electric field. In Figure 1a, we have compared the shape of a nerve spike, perception vs. reality. The difference is not so simple. Majority of the ion channels in that circular strip area requires to be activated simultaneously. In this circular area, polarization and depolarization for all ion channels should happen together. That is easy to presume but it is difficult to explain the mechanism.

Jun 29, 2022

Laser writing may enable ‘electronic nose’ for multi-gas sensor

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health

Environmental sensors are a step closer to simultaneously sniffing out multiple gases that could indicate disease or pollution, thanks to a Penn State collaboration. Huanyu “Larry” Cheng, assistant professor of engineering science and mechanics in the College of Engineering, and Lauren Zarzar, assistant professor of chemistry in Eberly College of Science, and their teams combined laser writing and responsive sensor technologies to fabricate the first highly customizable microscale gas sensing devices.

They published their technique this month in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.

“The detection of gases is of critical importance to various fields, including pollution monitoring, public safety assurance and personal health care,” Cheng said. “To fill these needs, sensing devices must be small, lightweight, inexpensive and easy to use and apply to various environments and substrates, such as clothing or piping.”

Jun 29, 2022

Top 15 Hardest Science Courses In The World

Posted by in category: science

Many students who enroll in a science course at university do not complete it.

Instead, because science courses are difficult, the majority of them drop out in their second year.

Jun 29, 2022

A spatiotemporal model of firearm ownership in the United States

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience, robotics/AI

This study explores the relationship between the adoption of industrial robots and workplace injuries using data from the United States (US) and Germany. Our empirical analyses, based on establishment-level data for the US, suggest that a one standard deviation increase in robot exposure reduces work-related injuries by approximately 16%. These results are driven by manufacturing firms (−28%), while we detect no impact on sectors that were less exposed to industrial robots. We also show that the US counties that are more exposed to robot penetration experience a significant increase in drug-or alcohol-related deaths and mental health problems, consistent with the extant evidence of negative effects on labor market outcomes in the US. Employing individual longitudinal data from Germany, we exploit within-individual changes in robot exposure and document similar effects on job physical intensity (−4%) and disability (−5%), but no evidence of significant effects on mental health and work and life satisfaction, consistent with the lack of significant impacts of robot penetration on labor market outcomes in Germany.

Jun 29, 2022

Industrial Robots, Workers’ Safety, and Health☆

Posted by in categories: health, robotics/AI

Saúl Morales RodriguézAuthor

The success of deep learning depends heavily on the availability of large datasets, but in robotic manipulation there are many learning problems for which such datasets do not exist. Collecting these datasets is time-consuming and expensive, and therefore learning from small datasets is an important open problem. Within computer vision, a common approach to a lack of data is data augmentation. Data augmentation is the process of creating additional training examples by modifying existing ones. However, because the types of tasks and data differ, the methods used in computer vision cannot be easily adapted to manipulation. Therefore, we propose a data augmentation method for robotic manipulation. We argue that augmentations should be valid, relevant, and diverse.

Jun 29, 2022

FCC commissioner urges TikTok be removed from Apple, Google stores over ‘unacceptable national security risk’

Posted by in category: security

FCC chief Brendan Carr urged the CEOs of Google and Apple to remove TikTok from their stores, arguing that Chinese “data harvesting” poses an “unacceptable national security risk.”

Jun 29, 2022

Google’s powerful AI spotlights a human cognitive glitch

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, robotics/AI

Stem cells in human urine have the potential to regenerate tissue.

Jun 29, 2022

Human Urine-Derived Stem Cells Have Robust Regenerative Potential

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, life extension

Summary: Stem cells in human urine have the potential to regenerate tissue.

Source: wake forest baptist medical center.

The Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) researchers who were the first to identify that stem cells in human urine have potential for tissue regenerative effects, continue their investigation into the power of these cells.

Jun 29, 2022

‘Aping A Human Brain’ — Chinese Supercomputer, 4th Most Powerful In World, Achieves Big Breakthrough In AI?

Posted by in categories: robotics/AI, supercomputing

Chinese computer scientists recently claimed to have run an artificial intelligence program with architecture as complicated as the human brain.

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