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May 29, 2024

Classifying the Surface Magnetization of Antiferromagnets

Posted by in categories: materials, particle physics

Group theory and first-principles calculations combine to predict which antiferromagnets have potentially useful net surface magnetization.

Antiferromagnetism was discovered in the 1930s by Louis Néel but had long been considered of scientific, not practical, interest. Antiferromagnets (AFM) are internally magnetic, but the magnetic moments of their atoms and molecules are antiparallel to each other, canceling out and resulting in no net magnetization. This cancellation renders bulk antiferromagnets effectively invisible to external magnetic fields, so that their magnetic properties are difficult to harness in applications. Recently, however, a new paradigm has appeared—antiferromagnetism-based spintronics—which seeks to apply antiferromagnets’ unique properties (such as fast spin dynamics, the absence of strong stray fields, and the stability of these materials) to the processing and storage of information [1].

May 29, 2024

Thin Films of Topological Magnets for Thermoelectric Applications

Posted by in category: energy

A thin film of a topological magnet displays a large thermoelectric effect that doesn’t require an applied magnetic field—a behavior that could lead to new energy-harvesting devices.

May 29, 2024

The death of Vulcan: Study reveals planet is actually an astronomical illusion caused by stellar activity

Posted by in category: space

A planet thought to orbit the star 40 Eridani A—host to Mr. Spock’s fictional home planet, Vulcan, in the “Star Trek” universe—is really a kind of astronomical illusion caused by the pulses and jitters of the star itself, a new study shows.

May 29, 2024

Neuroscientists use AI to simulate how the brain makes sense of the visual world

Posted by in categories: neuroscience, robotics/AI

A research team at Stanford’s Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute has made a major stride in using AI to replicate how the brain organizes sensory information to make sense of the world, opening up new frontiers for virtual neuroscience.

May 29, 2024

Researchers develop 3D model to better treat neurological disorders

Posted by in category: neuroscience

A 3D model developed by West Virginia University neuroscientists shows how implantable stimulators—the kind used to treat chronic pain—can target neurons that control specific muscles to provide rehabilitation for people with neurological disorders such as stroke and spinal cord injuries.

May 29, 2024

Speeding up calculations that reveal how electrons interact in materials

Posted by in categories: energy, quantum physics

Materials scientists and engineers would like to know precisely how electrons interact and move in new materials and how the devices made with them will behave. Will the electrical current flow easily within the material? Is there a temperature at which the material will become superconducting, enabling current to flow without a power source? How long will the quantum state of an electron spin be preserved in new electronic and quantum devices?

May 29, 2024

New study unveils how water dynamics slow down at low temperatures

Posted by in category: futurism

A scientist at the Institute for Molecular Science has published a study that provides insight into the puzzling phenomenon of dynamic slowdown in supercooled water, an essential step toward understanding the glass transition in liquids.

May 29, 2024

Researchers create the world’s strongest ionizing terahertz radiation

Posted by in categories: electronics, energy

Lying between the microwave and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, the terahertz (1 THz = 10¹² Hz) gap is being rapidly closed by development of new terahertz sources and detectors, with promising applications in spectroscopy, imaging, sensing, and communication.

These applications greatly benefit from terahertz sources delivering high-energy or high-average-power radiation. On the other hand, high-intensity or strong-field terahertz sources are essential to observe or exploit novel nonlinear terahertz-matter interactions, where the electric and/or magnetic field strengths play a key role.

The team of scientists, led by Dr. Chul Kang from Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea, and Professor Ki-Yong Kim from Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, U.S., has created the world’s strongest terahertz fields of 260 megavolts per centimeter (MV/cm) or equivalent peak intensity of 9 × 10¹³ watts per square centimeter (W/cm²).

May 29, 2024

The Mind After Midnight: Exploring the Dark Link Between Sleeplessness and Violence

Posted by in category: biotech/medical

An analysis of 15 years of national data on suicides and homicides shows that nocturnal wakefulness is associated with death by both suicide and homicide, possibly driven by deficits in behavioral and emotional regulation.

Risks for death by suicide and homicide peak at night, with nocturnal wakefulness, age, alcohol use, and relationship conflicts being especially prevalent as contributing factors. This is according to a new analysis by researchers in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Arizona College of Medicine – Tucson.

May 29, 2024

The Frequencies of Cognition: Exploring How Our Brains Differentiate Sounds

Posted by in categories: media & arts, neuroscience

A study shows our brains use basic sound rates and patterns to distinguish music from speech, offering insights to enhance therapies for speech impairments like aphasia.

Music and speech are among the most frequent types of sounds we hear. But how do we identify what we think are differences between the two?

Continue reading “The Frequencies of Cognition: Exploring How Our Brains Differentiate Sounds” »

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