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Feb 21, 2024

Spintronics research finds magnetic state of certain materials can be switched using surface induced strain

Posted by in categories: materials, particle physics

Electronics are based on electrical charges being transported from one place to another. Electrons move, current flows, and signals are transmitted by applying an electrical voltage. However, there is also another way to manipulate electronic currents and signals: using the properties of the spin—the intrinsic magnetic moment of the electron. This is called “spintronics,” and it has become an increasingly important field in contemporary electronic research.

An international research team involving TU Wien and the Czech Academy of Sciences has now achieved an important breakthrough. They have managed to switch the spins in an antiferromagnetic material using surface strain. This could lead to an important new line of research in electronic technologies. The research is published in the journal Advanced Functional Materials.

“There are different types of magnetism,” explains Sergii Khmelevskyi from the Vienna Scientific Cluster Research Center, TU Wien. “The best known is ferromagnetism. It occurs when the atomic spins in a material are all aligned in parallel. But there is also the opposite, antiferromagnetism. In an antiferromagnetic material, neighboring atoms always have opposite spins.” Their effects therefore cancel each other out and no can be detected from the outside.

Feb 21, 2024

Dark Matter May Be a Deformed Mirror Universe, Scientists Say

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

Does dark matter reside in a deformed mirror universe of our own, where rules are different and atoms failed to form?

Feb 21, 2024

Neuromorphic Computing from the Computer Science Perspective: Algorithms and Applications

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI, science, transportation

Speaker’s Bio: Catherine (Katie) Schuman is a research scientist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). She received her Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee (UT) in 2015, where she completed her dissertation on the use of evolutionary algorithms to train spiking neural networks for neuromorphic systems. She is continuing her study of algorithms for neuromorphic computing at ORNL. Katie has an adjunct faculty appointment with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at UT, where she co-leads the TENNLab neuromorphic computing research group. Katie received the U.S. Department of Energy Early Career Award in 2019.

Talk Abstract: Neuromorphic computing is a popular technology for the future of computing. Much of the focus in neuromorphic computing research and development has focused on new architectures, devices, and materials, rather than in the software, algorithms, and applications of these systems. In this talk, I will overview the field of neuromorphic from the computer science perspective. I will give an introduction to spiking neural networks, as well as some of the most common algorithms used in the field. Finally, I will discuss the potential for using neuromorphic systems in real-world applications from scientific data analysis to autonomous vehicles.

Continue reading “Neuromorphic Computing from the Computer Science Perspective: Algorithms and Applications” »

Feb 21, 2024

The Next Breakthrough Against Cancer?

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, innovation

Einstein scientist Xingxing Zang, Ph.D., has teamed up with Einstein grad, Elizabeth Stoner, M.D.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine researcher Xingxing Zang, Ph.D., latest cancer research and clinical trial.

Feb 20, 2024

Latent Topology Inference

Posted by in category: robotics/AI

Topological Deep Learning (TDL) is gaining traction for its ability to capture higher-order interactions beyond the pairwise structure of #graphs, using tools from #algebraic #topology, especially combinatorial topological spaces.

How combinatorial topological spaces can be used to promote a paradigm shift from inferring pairwise to multiway latent relationships in data.

Several problems in machine learning call for methods able to infer and exploit multi-way, higher-order relationships hidden in the data. We propose the new beyond-graph paradigm of Latent Topology Inference, which aims to learn latent higher-order combinatorial topological spaces describing multi-way interactions among data points. To make Latent Topology Inference implementable, we introduce the Differentiable Cell Complex Module, a novel learnable function able to infer a latent cell complex to improve the downstream task.

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Feb 20, 2024

NASA Sponsored Researcher Suggests It Might Be Possible to Change the Laws of Physics

Posted by in categories: engineering, neuroscience, physics

In an extremely cosmic–brain take, University of Rochester astrophysics professor Adam Frank suggests that a civilization could advance so much that it could eventually tinker with the fundamental laws of physics.

It’s a mind-bending proposition that ventures far beyond the conventional framework of scientific understanding, a reminder that perhaps we should dare to think outside the box — especially as we continue our search for extraterrestrial civilizations.

If a civilization were to be able to change the laws of physics, “the very nature of energy itself, with established rules like energy conservation, would be subject to revision within the scope of engineering,” Frank, who is part of the NASA-sponsored Categorizing Atmospheric Technosignatures program, wrote in an essay for Big Think.

Feb 20, 2024

‘This is weird’: Experts ‘shocked’ by record-breaking longevity of Death Valley’s phantom lake

Posted by in category: futurism

A temporary lake at Badwater Basin in Death Valley National Park has persisted for more than six months, which is far longer than it has lasted before. And experts say that it could stick around for quite a while yet.

Feb 20, 2024

Study: ancient technique holds thousands of tons of carbon, sequestered over centuries

Posted by in category: futurism

Archaeologists have dug up mysteriously black and fertile patches of ancient soils in hundreds of sites across the Amazon. 🌎⁠

The team’s study appears in Science Advances. Other authors include former MIT postdoc and lead author Morgan Schmidt, anthropologist Michael Heckenberger of the University of Florida, and collaborators from multiple institutions across Brazil.

In their current study, the team synthesized observations and data that Schmidt, Heckenberger, and others had previously gathered, while working with Indigenous communities in the Amazon since the early 2000s, with new data collected in 2018–19. The scientists focused their fieldwork in the Kuikuro Indigenous Territory in the Upper Xingu River basin in the southeastern Amazon. This region is home to modern Kuikuro villages as well as archaeological sites where the ancestors of the Kuikuro are thought to have lived. Over multiple visits to the region, Schmidt, then a graduate student at the University of Florida, was struck by the darker soil around some archaeological sites.

Continue reading “Study: ancient technique holds thousands of tons of carbon, sequestered over centuries” »

Feb 20, 2024

Researchers Uncovered a New State of Matter Hidden in The Quantum World

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

A team of physicists, including University of Massachusetts assistant professor Tigran Sedrakyan, recently announced in the journal Nature that they have discovered a new phase of matter. Called the “chiral Bose-liquid state,” the discovery opens a new path in the age-old effort to understand the nature of the physical world.

Under everyday conditions, matter can be a solid, liquid or gas. But once you venture beyond the everyday—into temperatures approaching absolute zero, things smaller than a fraction of an atom or which have extremely low states of energy—the world looks very different. “You find quantum states of matter way out on these fringes,” says Sedrakyan, “and they are much wilder than the three classical states we encounter in our everyday lives.”

Sedrakyan has spent years exploring these wild quantum states, and he is particularly interested in the possibility of what physicists call “band degeneracy,” “moat bands” or “kinetic frustration” in strongly interacting quantum matter.

Feb 20, 2024

CHEAR Seminar

Posted by in category: futurism

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