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Dec 2, 2023

Quark Picture Put to the Test

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

A measurement of the charge radius of an aluminum nucleus probes the assumption that there are only three families of quarks.

In the standard model of particle physics, matter is made of elementary particles called quarks and leptons. Quarks are the heavy constituents that form, for example, protons and neutrons, whereas leptons are the light constituents, such as the electron. The six known quarks—up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom—are split into three families. But could there be a fourth family? Answering that question would require hundreds of different measurements in particle and nuclear physics. However, not all these measurements are yet available or precise enough, and many parameter values are only inferred or extrapolated. Now Peter Plattner at CERN in Switzerland and his colleagues show how a single one of these measurements can shift our understanding of this fundamental question [1].

In the quantum-mechanical framework of the standard model, quarks can oscillate among their different flavors. The best-known example occurs in the beta decay of radioactive nuclei: a proton is transformed into a neutron (or vice versa) when one of its quarks oscillates from up to down (or down to up). The rate of beta decay depends on many factors involving both nuclear and atomic physics, but the rate at which the quarks oscillate is described by a single quantity: Vud, the so-called matrix element of the transformation of an up quark into a down quark.

Dec 2, 2023

Tension Remodeling Resolves Tissue Architecture Question

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, materials

A dynamical tension model captures how cells swap places with their neighbors in epithelial tissues, explaining observed phase transitions and cellular architectures.

Epithelial tissues line the surfaces of every organ in our bodies. In the earliest stages of organ development and in wound healing, the cells that make up these simple sheets constantly rearrange themselves, exchanging positions like molecules in a liquid. But this fluidization is often hindered by the formation of multicell clusters, whose origins remain unclear. Using a dynamical structural model, Fernanda Pérez-Verdugo and Shiladitya Banerjee of Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania now identify the mechanical prerequisites that lead to the formation and dissolution of these stabilized clusters [1]. They show how dynamic feedback between tension and strain controls the tissue’s material properties.

Existing models of tissue fluidity treat epithelial tissues as foam-like, polygonal networks of cells whose edges join at triple points. However, these models fail to explain the mechanisms underpinning cell neighbor exchanges. In particular, they oversimplify such exchanges by treating them as an instantaneous process, thereby avoiding the impact of exchanges that stall midprocess. One resulting discrepancy with experimental results is the absence of stable “rosette” structures that are observed in developing tissues where four or more cells meet.

Dec 2, 2023

LeoLM 70B is a German optimized large language model that beats Llama 2

Posted by in category: futurism

Update from 02. December 2023:

LAION releases the 70 billion version of LeoLM trained with 65 billion tokens. It is based on Llama-2-70b, but according to LAION it can beat Meta’s base model — in both German and English.

“With this release, we hope to bring a new wave of opportunities to German open-source and commercial LLM research and accelerate adoption,” the team writes.

Dec 2, 2023

The theoretical work of preparing for DUNE

Posted by in category: particle physics

On July 21, 2017, a group of dignitaries, scientists and engineers gathered in Lead, South Dakota, to hold a unique groundbreaking ceremony—at a research institution in a former gold mine, about one mile underground. The ceremony marked the beginning of construction for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

DUNE will study neutrinos, fundamental particles of matter that are abundant across the universe but difficult to catch. Over 100 trillion of them flow harmlessly and undetectably through your body each second.

Neutrinos come in three flavors—electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos and tau neutrinos—and they oscillate between those flavors as they travel. This means that a neutrino first produced as an electron neutrino can become a muon or tau neutrino.

Dec 2, 2023

Longevity: Healthier diet at age 40 could add 8 years to your life

Posted by in category: life extension

A new study indicates that switching to a healthier diet at age 40 is associated with 8 added years of life.

Dec 2, 2023

NASA will land daring spacecraft on a world 800 million miles away

Posted by in category: space travel

NASA’s Dragonfly mission sounds like science fiction. But it’s real.

The space agency will launch the car-sized craft, fitted with eight spinning rotors, to one of the most intriguing worlds in our solar system, Saturn’s ocean-and dune-covered moon, Titan. It’s a frigid realm where methane, not water, fills lakes and seas, and where the dunes are teeming with the organic ingredients needed for life (as we know it) to develop.

NASA determined that Dragonfly aced its preliminary design stages, and on Nov. 28 gave the thumbs up for this “dual-quadcopter” endeavor to proceed to its final construction. The flying craft is uniquely designed for this mission, as it will explore hundreds of miles of Titan’s terrain. Over a planned mission of close to three years, Dragonfly will take off and land at multiple sites as it investigates the “prebiotic” conditions that could have provided the brew for life to eventually form in our solar system.

Dec 2, 2023

The Boring Company completes Vegas Westgate-2 tunnel with Prufrock-1

Posted by in category: Elon Musk

Elon Musk-led tunneling company The Boring Company has completed a new tunnel in Las Vegas as it continues to make progress on a larger loop covering much of the city’s downtown.

On Friday, The Boring Company page on X posted saying that the Prufrock-1 tunneling machine has completed the Westgate-2 tunnel, marking the massive tool’s fourth tunnel constructed in the city. In addition to Prufrock-1, the post also says that its the seventh tunnel the company has built in Las Vegas, while the other three were completed using Godot and its latest iteration of the Prufrock machine, the Prufrock-2.

The post also included a photo of Prufrock-1 emerging from the construction site beside the Westgate hotel, which you can see below.

Dec 2, 2023

IBM and NASA are building an AI foundation model for weather and climate

Posted by in categories: climatology, robotics/AI

The goal is to improve the speed, accuracy, and accessibility of weather forecasting and other climate applications.

Dec 2, 2023

Elon Musk Hints at Bringing Tesla Bot’s Bulletproof Cybertruck Test to Life in the Coming Year

Posted by in categories: Elon Musk, robotics/AI

Tesla has been pushing the boundaries of what’s possible in the automotive industry. A recent demonstration of this is the bulletproof testing of the Cybertruck, conducted using Tesla Bots. This article delves into the details of these tests, the implications for Tesla’s technological advancements, and the potential future of these innovations. Tesla’s Bulletproof Cybertruck Recently, […].

Dec 2, 2023

Huawei takes center stage in the China-US AI chip race

Posted by in categories: government, mobile phones, robotics/AI

In an ironic twist, the Chinese government is turning to Huawei to spearhead the nation’s quest for semiconductor self-reliance.

Andrea Nicolini/iStock.

The sanctions made it so that only those with special permission could produce the chips designed by Huawei. As a result, Huawei faced difficulties in obtaining new chips for the development of more advanced smartphones.

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