Page 7389

Feb 23, 2017

Why is pancreatic cancer so hard to treat? Stroma provides new clues

Posted by in category: biotech/medical

Nice discovery.

Why are pancreatic tumors so resistant to treatment? One reason is that the “wound”-like tissue that surrounds the tumors, called stroma, is much more dense than stromal tissue surrounding other, more treatable tumor types. Stromal tissue is believed to contain factors that aid tumor survival and growth. Importantly, in pancreatic cancer, its density is thought to be a factor in preventing cancer-killing drugs from reaching the tumor.

“You can think of a pancreas tumor as a big raisin oatmeal cookie, with the raisins representing the cancer cells and oatmeal portion representing the dense stroma that makes up over 90% of the tumor,” says David Tuveson, M.D., Ph.D., Director of the Cancer Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL). Tuveson leads the Lustgarten Foundation Designated Lab in Pancreatic Cancer Research at CSHL, and his team today reports an important discovery about stromal tissue in the major form of pancreatic cancer, called pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, or PDA.

Continue reading “Why is pancreatic cancer so hard to treat? Stroma provides new clues” »

Feb 23, 2017

Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis Target of Rapamycin (AtTOR) improves water-use efficiency and yield potential in rice

Posted by in category: food

How plants are teaching us about TOR proteins and their impacts on the pathways.

The target of Rapamycin (TOR) present in all eukaryotes is a multifunctional protein, regulating growth, development, protein translation, ribosome biogenesis, nutrient, and energy signaling. In the present study, ectopic expression of TOR gene of Arabidopsis thaliana in a widely cultivated indica rice resulted in enhanced plant growth under water-limiting conditions conferring agronomically important water-use efficiency (WUE) trait. The AtTOR high expression lines of rice exhibited profuse tillering, increased panicle length, increased plant height, high photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and low ∆13 C. Δ13 C, which is inversely related to high WUE, was as low as 17‰ in two AtTOR high expression lines. These lines were also insensitive to the ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination. The significant upregulation of 15 stress-specific genes in high expression lines indica tes their contribution to abiotic stress tolerance. The constitutive expression of AtTOR is also associated with significant transcriptional upregulation of putative TOR complex-1 components, Os Raptor and OsLST8. Glucose-mediated transcriptional activation of AtTOR gene enhanced lateral root formation. Taken together, our findings indica te that TOR, in addition to its multiple cellular functions, also plays an important role in response to abiotic stress and potentially enhances WUE and yield related attributes.

Read more

Feb 23, 2017

Magnetization switching in ferromagnets

Posted by in category: quantum physics

Nice article on cell spins and the Quantum Bio effect.

Spin manipulation in memory devices typically requires large electrical currents, limiting performance. Here the authors demonstrate magnetization switching in ferromagnetic films by depositing chiral molecules, making use of a proximity effect without needing magnetic or electric fields.

Read more

Feb 23, 2017

A four-day Western-style dietary intervention causes reductions in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory and interoceptive sensitivity

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, food

Interesting find on hippocampus and ingestive control.

In animals, a Western style diet–high in saturated fat and added sugar–causes impairments in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory (HDLM) and perception of internal bodily state (interoception). In humans, while there is correlational support for a link between Western-style diet, HDLM, and interoception, there is as yet no causal data. Here, healthy individuals were randomly assigned to consume either a breakfast high in saturated fat and added sugar (Experimental condition) or a healthier breakfast (Control condition), over four consecutive days. Tests of HDLM, interoception and biological measures were administered before and after breakfast on the days one and four, and participants completed food diaries before and during the study. At the end of the study, the Experimental condition showed significant reductions in HDLM and reduced interoceptive sensitivity to hunger and fullness, relative to the Control condition. The Experimental condition also showed a markedly different blood glucose and triglyceride responses to their breakfast, relative to Controls, with larger changes in blood glucose across breakfast being associated with greater reductions in HDLM. The Experimental condition compensated for their energy-dense breakfast by reducing carbohydrate intake, while saturated fat intake remained consistently higher than Controls. This is the first experimental study in humans to demonstrate that a Western-style diet impacts HDLM following a relatively short exposure–just as in animals. The link between diet-induced HDLM changes and blood glucose suggests one pathway by which diet impacts HDLM in humans.

Citation: Attuquayefio T, Stevenson RJ, Oaten MJ, Francis HM (2017) PLoS ONE 12: e0172645. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172645

Continue reading “A four-day Western-style dietary intervention causes reductions in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory and interoceptive sensitivity” »

Feb 23, 2017

Sleeping for 9+ Hours May Be Early Sign of Dementia

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Are you over sleeping? If yes, be careful.

Sleeping for extended amounts of time may be an early indicator of cognitive decline in older people, especially among those with lower education levels, researchers report.

Elderly participants who consistently slept more than 9 hours a night had double the dementia risk over a decade of follow-up in an analysis of data from the Framingham Heart Study.

Continue reading “Sleeping for 9+ Hours May Be Early Sign of Dementia” »

Feb 23, 2017

Playing favorites: Brain cells prefer one parent’s gene over the other’s

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, mathematics, neuroscience

Well, in my immediate family; we get science, math, and futurists talents from my dad. And, there does seem to be a pattern in my immediate family with this; not sure about others. Would love to know though.

SALT LAKE CITY — Most kids say they love their mom and dad equally, but there are times when even the best prefers one parent over the other. The same can be said for how the body’s cells treat our DNA instructions. It has long been thought that each copy — one inherited from mom and one from dad — is treated the same. A new study from scientists at the University of Utah School of Medicine shows that it is not uncommon for cells in the brain to preferentially activate one copy over the other. The finding breaks basic tenants of classic genetics and suggests new ways in which genetic mutations might cause brain disorders.

In at least one region of the newborn mouse brain, the new research shows, inequality seems to be the norm. About 85 percent of genes in the dorsal raphe nucleus, known for secreting the mood-controlling chemical serotonin, differentially activate their maternal and paternal gene copies. Ten days later in the juvenile brain, the landscape shifts, with both copies being activated equally for all but 10 percent of genes.

Continue reading “Playing favorites: Brain cells prefer one parent’s gene over the other’s” »

Feb 23, 2017

Deep brain stimulation for patients with chronic anorexia is safe and might improve symptoms

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health, information science, neuroscience, quantum physics, security, singularity

BMI is coming fast and will replace many devices we have today. Advances we making in deep brain development are huge markers that pushes the BMI needle forward for the day when IoT, Security, and big data analytics is a human brain’s and a secured Quantum Infrastructure and people (not servers sitting somewhere) owns and manages their most private of information. I love calling it the age of people empowerment as well as singularity.

Small study in 16 people suggests technique is safe and might help improve mood, anxiety and wellbeing, while increasing weight.

Deep brain stimulation might alter the brain circuits that drive anorexia nervosa symptoms and help improve patients’ mental and physical health, according to a small study published in The Lancet Psychiatry.

Continue reading “Deep brain stimulation for patients with chronic anorexia is safe and might improve symptoms” »

Feb 23, 2017

Nano Thread Enables Scientists to Extend Length of Brain Implant Efficacy

Posted by in categories: materials, neuroscience

There is way more coming in BMI.

Researcher Dr. Luan and his interdisciplinary team from the University of Texas at Austin have developed an ultra flexible nanoelectronic thread (NET) that has the potential to offer a new type of the long-term neural implants. Neural probes are used to directly measure or even stimulate electrical activity in specific regions of the brain. However, despite the many advances in the field, issues with biocompatibility have limited the prospects and usefulness of the technology. Conventional probes induce scarring around the implant over time, which in turn increasingly impairs the devices’ ability to measure electrical impulses. This scarring is a result of conventional probes’ width, material, and lack of flexibility.

Due to the micrometer dimensions of the NET and its insulation, the implant doesn’t trigger the development of scar tissue and continues working for months at a time. Publishing in the journal Science Advances, the researchers describe the NET from 7 nm nanoprobes layered together and two to three layers of insulation. The layers together total to about 1 µm in thickness, which grants the probe flexibility that is almost 1000 times greater than conventional probes. This flexibility allows the device to remain in place without hindering the movement of or displacing surrounding tissue.

Continue reading “Nano Thread Enables Scientists to Extend Length of Brain Implant Efficacy” »

Feb 23, 2017

Spiky Nanostructures Capture Life’s Fine Details

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, nanotechnology

A new day for imaging.

Optical microscopes that use lenses to bounce photons off objects have trouble distinguishing nanometer-scale objects smaller than the imaging beam’s wavelength, such as proteins and DNA. An innovative ‘hyperlens’ designed at A* STAR can overcome optical diffraction limits by capturing high-resolution information held by short-lived or evanescent waves lurking near a target’s surface.

Hyperlens devices — composed of thin stacks of alternate metal and plastic layers — have raised prospects for capturing living biological processes in action with high–speed optics. Key to their operation are oscillating electrons, known as surface plasmons, that resonate with and enhance evanescent waves that appear when photons strike a solid object. The narrow wavelengths of evanescent beams give nanoscale resolution to images when the hyperlens propagates the images to a standard microscope.

Continue reading “Spiky Nanostructures Capture Life’s Fine Details” »

Feb 23, 2017

Carbon dioxide converts into fuel using ultraviolet light

Posted by in categories: chemistry, particle physics

Harvesting energy from carbon emissions.

Washington: Scientists have developed tiny nano particles that turned carbon dioxide into fuel using light.

Researchers said that carbon dioxide converts into methane, a key building block for many types of fuels, by using only ultraviolet light as an energy source.

Continue reading “Carbon dioxide converts into fuel using ultraviolet light” »