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Dec 7, 2023

Ultra-thin metal-organic layers prevent ice crystal formation in novel cryoprotectants

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry

Small amounts of nanometer-thin metal-organic layers efficiently protect red blood cells during freezing and thawing, as a team of researchers writing in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition has discovered. The nanolayers, made from metal-organic frameworks based on the metal hafnium, prevent ice crystal formation at very low concentrations. This effective novel cryoprotection mode could be used to develop new and more efficient cryoprotectants for the biosciences.

Cryoprotectants prevent ice crystals from forming when samples are frozen. Growing crystals can damage delicate cell membranes and cell components and disrupt cell integrity. Some solvents or polymers make good cryoprotectants; they keep ice in check by binding and disrupting their ordered assembly during ice formation.

Synthetic chemistry has yet more tricks up its sleeve for targeting and influencing ice formation in a more effective way. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are three-dimensional crystalline networks of metal ions linked by organic ligands. These ligands can be tailored to bind such as water, allowing the assembly of the water molecules into ice crystals to be very precisely tuned.

Dec 7, 2023

How to Never Be Afraid of Cancer Again

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health

Register for free and learn how to never be afraid of cancer again from health expert: Nathan Crane.

Dec 7, 2023

The Dark Side of Urbanization: Light Pollution’s Toll on Bird Migration

Posted by in categories: information science, surveillance, transportation

Are bright cities making it worse for birds during their migrations? Find out here!

A recent study published in Nature Communications examines how increased levels of artificial light, specifically in urban areas, has contributed to increased bird deaths during their annual migrations. This study comes as hundreds of birds were killed after colliding with a Chicago building, and despite a 2021 study recommending that reduced building lights would reduce bird collisions by 60 percent. This recent study holds the potential to help scientists and the public better understand how rapidly expanding urban areas are impacting bird migration and their safety.

For the study, the researchers used the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD), which is jointly operated by the U.S. Air Force, Federal Aviation Administration, and the U.S. National Weather Service, to track bird migration stopover density during spring (March 15 to June 15) and fall (August 15 to November 15) seasons between 2016 and 2020. After analyzing more than 10 million radar observations, the researchers found that light pollution was the second-highest ranked reason for birds stopping for breaks out of 49 reasons measured for the study, with the top reason being elevation.

Continue reading “The Dark Side of Urbanization: Light Pollution’s Toll on Bird Migration” »

Dec 7, 2023

“Deep Heating” of a Jupiter-Like Planet Causes New Storm to Blow

Posted by in categories: climatology, space, supercomputing

Supercomputer simulations of the weather on a hot Jupiter reveal a previously unseen storm pattern in which cyclones are repeatedly generated and destroyed.

Dec 7, 2023

Symmetry Violation Predicted for Bottom-Containing Baryon

Posted by in categories: particle physics, space

Researchers predict a large “CP” violation for the decay of a baryon that contains a bottom quark, a finding that has implications for how physicists understand the Universe.

Dec 7, 2023

Carbon Monoxide Leaves Cosmic Ice with a Kick

Posted by in category: futurism

Molecular “kicks” induced by ultraviolet light are predicted to cause carbon monoxide molecules to be released from the icy layers that cover cosmic dust.

Dec 7, 2023

Atom Diffraction from a Microscopic Spot

Posted by in categories: particle physics, space

Researchers have developed an atom-diffraction imaging method with micrometer spatial resolution, which may allow new applications in material characterization.

Microscopy with atoms offers new possibilities in the study of surfaces and two-dimensional (2D) materials [1]. Atom beams satisfy the most important requirements for microscopic probing: they can achieve high contrast and surface-specificity while doing little damage to the sample. A subtype of atomic microscopy—atomic-diffraction imaging—obtains measurements in reciprocal, or momentum, space, which is ideal for studying the surfaces of large and uniform crystalline samples. However, scientists developing this technique face challenges in achieving micrometer-scale spatial resolutions that would allow the study of polycrystalline materials, nonuniform 2D materials, and other surfaces without long-range order.

Dec 7, 2023

New dark matter theory explains two puzzles in astrophysics

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

Thought to make up 85% of matter in the universe, dark matter is nonluminous and its nature is not well understood. While normal matter absorbs, reflects, and emits light, dark matter cannot be seen directly, making it harder to detect. A theory called “self-interacting dark matter,” or SIDM, proposes that dark matter particles self-interact through a dark force, strongly colliding with one another close to the center of a galaxy.

In work published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, a research team led by Hai-Bo Yu, a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of California, Riverside, reports that SIDM simultaneously can explain two astrophysics puzzles in opposite extremes.

“The first is a high-density halo in a massive elliptical galaxy,” Yu said. “The halo was detected through observations of strong , and its density is so high that it is extremely unlikely in the prevailing cold dark matter theory. The second is that dark matter halos of ultra-diffuse galaxies have extremely low densities and they are difficult to explain by the cold dark matter theory.”

Dec 7, 2023

Physicists ‘entangle’ individual molecules for the first time, hastening possibilities for quantum computing

Posted by in categories: computing, quantum physics

For the first time, a team of Princeton physicists have been able to link together individual molecules into special states that are quantum mechanically “entangled.” In these bizarre states, the molecules remain correlated with each other—and can interact simultaneously—even if they are miles apart, or indeed, even if they occupy opposite ends of the universe. This research was recently published in the journal Science.

“This is a breakthrough in the world of because of the fundamental importance of quantum entanglement,” said Lawrence Cheuk, assistant professor of physics at Princeton University and the senior author of the paper. “But it is also a breakthrough for practical applications because entangled molecules can be the for many future applications.”

These include, for example, quantum computers that can solve certain problems much faster than conventional computers, that can model complex materials whose behaviors are difficult to model, and that can measure faster than their traditional counterparts.

Dec 7, 2023

SpaceX launches its 90th orbital mission of the year (video)

Posted by in category: space travel

Liftoff occurred at 12:07 a.m. ET on Thursday (Dec. 7).

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