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May 27, 2024

Paper page — Grokked Transformers are Implicit Reasoners: A Mechanistic Journey to the Edge of Generalization

Posted by in category: futurism

Grokked Transformers are Implicit Reasoners.

A mechanistic journey to the edge of generalization.

We study whether transformers can learn to implicitly reason over parametric knowledge, a skill that even the most capable language models struggle with.

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May 27, 2024

Depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder linked with ancient viral DNA in our genome — new research

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

‘Hervs’ date back hundreds of thousands of years – and play an important role in regulating genes.

May 27, 2024

Mechanism-based organization of neural networks to emulate systems biology and pharmacology models

Posted by in categories: biological, robotics/AI

Mann, J., Meshkin, H., Zirkle, J. et al. Mechanism-based organization of neural networks to emulate systems biology and pharmacology models. Sci Rep 14, 12,082 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-59378-9

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May 27, 2024

A fungus converts cellulose directly into a novel platform chemical

Posted by in category: chemistry

The fungus Talaromyces verruculosus can produce the chemical erythro-isocitric acid directly from cheap plant waste, thus making it interesting for industrial utilization.

May 27, 2024

Semiconductor advancement could lead to low-cost, flexible electronic devices

Posted by in categories: electronics, materials

The public’s appetite for inexpensive and powerful electronic devices continues to grow. While silicon-based semiconductors have been key to satiating this demand, a superior alternative could be wide-bandgap semiconductors. These materials, which operate at higher temperatures and handle increased power loads, are unfortunately very expensive.

May 27, 2024

AI-Powered Fusion: The Key to Limitless Clean Energy

Posted by in categories: nuclear energy, particle physics, robotics/AI

Researchers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory are harnessing artificial intelligence and machine learning to enhance fusion energy production, tackling the challenge of controlling plasma reactions. Their innovations include optimizing the design and operation of containment vessels and using AI to predict and manage instabilities, significantly improving the safety and efficiency of fusion reactions. This technology has been successfully applied in tokamak reactors, advancing the field towards viable commercial fusion energy. Credit: SciTechDaily.com.

The intricate dance of atoms fusing and releasing energy has fascinated scientists for decades. Now, human ingenuity and artificial intelligence are coming together at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) to solve one of humankind’s most pressing issues: generating clean, reliable energy from fusing plasma.

Unlike traditional computer code, machine learning — a type of artificially intelligent software — isn’t simply a list of instructions. Machine learning is software that can analyze data, infer relationships between features, learn from this new knowledge, and adapt. PPPL researchers believe this ability to learn and adapt could improve their control over fusion reactions in various ways. This includes perfecting the design of vessels surrounding the super-hot plasma, optimizing heating methods, and maintaining stable control of the reaction for increasingly long periods.

May 27, 2024

Research team develops aluminum alloy that may reduce the risk of electric vehicle fires

Posted by in categories: sustainability, transportation

Dr. Hyeon-woo Son and his research team from the Department of Aluminum in the Advanced Metals Division at KIMS have successfully developed an aluminum alloy for electric vehicles that dramatically improves thermal stability. The paper is published in the Journal of Materials Research and Technology.

May 27, 2024

MIT design would harness 40 percent of the sun’s heat to produce clean hydrogen fuel

Posted by in categories: energy, transportation

Engineers hope to produce totally green, carbon-free hydrogen fuel with a new, train-like system of reactors driven by the sun.

May 27, 2024

Software tools identify forgotten genes

Posted by in categories: biological, genetics

One tool, called Find My Understudied Genes (FMUG), emerged from a study published in March1, which first explores why interesting, but relatively under-researched, genes are not highlighted in genetic surveys, and then offers FMUG as a remedy.

The second tool is the Unknome database, created by a team led by Matthew Freeman at the University of Oxford, UK, and Sean Munro at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK, that was described2 in 2023.

“We are in the lucky position to know what we don’t know,” says Thomas Stoeger, a biologist at Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois, and co-author of the FMUG study.

May 27, 2024

New Discoveries about Jupiter’s Magnetosphere

Posted by in categories: energy, mathematics, physics, satellites

New discoveries about Jupiter could lead to a better understanding of Earth’s own space environment and influence a long-running scientific debate about the solar system’s largest planet. “By exploring a larger space such as Jupiter, we can better understand the fundamental physics governing Earth’s magnetosphere and thereby improve our space weather forecasting,” said Peter Delamere, a professor at the UAF Geophysical Institute and the UAF College of Natural Science and Mathematics.

“We are one big space weather event from losing communication satellites, our power grid assets, or both,” he said.

Space weather refers to disturbances in the Earth’s magnetosphere caused by interactions between the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetic field. These are generally associated with solar storms and the sun’s coronal mass ejections, which can lead to magnetic fluctuations and disruptions in power grids, pipelines and communication systems.

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