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Feb 24, 2024

Healthy eating and activity reverse aging marker in kids with obesity, Stanford Medicine-led study finds

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, food, genetics, life extension

A genetic marker linked to premature aging was reversed in children with obesity during a six-month diet and exercise program, according to a recent study led by the Stanford School of Medicine.

Children’s telomeres — protective molecular “caps” on the chromosomes — were longer during the weight management program, then were shorter again in the year after the program ended, the study found. The research was published last month in Pediatric Obesity.

Continue reading “Healthy eating and activity reverse aging marker in kids with obesity, Stanford Medicine-led study finds” »

Feb 24, 2024

Novel Mechanism Reveals New B cell Role in Autoimmunity

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, education, neuroscience

Autoimmune disease occurs from the body’s immune system attacking its healthy cells. Unfortunately, the mechanism that would normally prevent autoimmunity is not present in some individuals. T cells are the immune cell population responsible for killing or lysing invading pathogens. In the context of autoimmunity, T cells attack and lyse healthy cells. The thymus gland educates or prepares T cells to become activated and target foreign pathogens. T cells are exposed to different molecules and surface markers which further train these cells on how to respond when they come into contact with foreign markers. Autoimmune disorders are rare and can often be detected in children. However, there are limited treatment options, and a cure has not been found. Researchers are currently working to better treat autoimmune disorders and improve the quality of life in patients.

A recent article published in Nature, by a team led by Dr. Thomas Korn, reported a previously unknown mechanism underlying autoimmune disease. Korn is a Professor of Experimental Nueroimmunology at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Principal Investigator at the Maximilian University of Munich (LMU). His lab focuses on T cell biology and the underlying mechanisms of autoimmune disorders. Korn and others demonstrated that another immune cell population, B cells, aid in T cell education in the thymus gland. Korn and others point out that B cells are part of T cell development and play a critical role in autoimmune disorder.

Researchers used both animal models and human tissue samples to conduct their research to investigate T cell development. The autoimmune disorder Korn and his team used as a model is known as neuromyelitis optica, which is similar to multiple sclerosis (MS). Researchers chose this specific model due to the well-known fact that T cells respond to the protein AQP4 in this autoimmune disorder. Interestingly, AQP4 is highly expressed in the nervous system, which becomes the target of autoimmunity. Researchers discovered that B cells also express AQP4, which present this protein to the T cells in the thymus. Interestingly, if the B cells did not express AQP4, then T cells would not become reactive to the surface protein and target healthy nervous system cells. Epithelial cells also expressed the AQP4 protein and resulted in the same autoimmune reaction. However, B cells were found to significantly impact T cell development compared to other cells in the thymus.

Feb 24, 2024

Percutaneous Continuous Radiofrequency Versus Pulsed Radiofrequency Thermorhizotomy for the Treatment of Neuralgia of the Trigeminal Nerve: A Retrospective Observational Study

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, materials

Objectives: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) represents one of the most powerful manifestations of neuropathic pain. The diagnostic criteria, as well as its therapeutic modalities, stand firmly established. The percutaneous radiofrequency thermorhizotomy of the gasserian ganglion and posterior root of the trigeminal nerve stands as a widely employed procedure in this context. In this retrospective observational investigation, we undertake a comparative analysis of patients subjected to treatment employing continuous radiofrequency (C-rF) versus pulsed radiofrequency (P-rF).

Materials and methods: A cohort of 128 patients afflicted with essential neuralgia of the trigeminal nerve, all under the care of the distinguished author (JCA), underwent percutaneous radiofrequency thermorhizotomy between the years 2005 and 2022. They were stratified into two cohorts: Group 1 encompassed 76 patients treated with C-rF, while Group 2 comprised 52 patients subjected to P-rF intervention. All participants met the stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria for TN, with a notable concentration in the V2 and V3 territories accounting for 60% and 45%, respectively. The post-procedural follow-up period exhibited uniformity, spanning from six months to 16 years. Preceding the intervention, all patients uniformly reported a visual analog scale (VAS) score surpassing 6/10. Additionally, everyone had been undergoing pharmacological management, involving a combination of antineuropathic agents and low-potency opioids.

Results: The evaluation of clinical improvement was conducted across three temporal domains: the immediate short-term (less than 30 days), the intermediate-term (less than one year), and the prolonged-term (exceeding one year). In the short term, a noteworthy alleviation of pain, surpassing the 50% threshold, was evident in most patients (94%), a similarity observed in both cohorts (98% in Group 1 and 90% in Group 2). The VAS revealed an average rating of 3/10 for Group 1 and 2/10 for Group 2. Moving to the intermediate term, more than 50% improvement in pain was registered in 89% of patients (92% in Group 1 and 86% in Group 2). The mean VAS score stood at 3.5÷10, marginally higher in Group 2 at 4/10 compared to 3/10 in Group 1. In the final assessment, a 50% or greater reduction in pain was reported by 75% of patients, with no discernible disparity between the two cohorts. Among the cohort, 18 individuals necessitated a subsequent percutaneous intervention (10 in Group 1 and eight in Group 2), while microvascular decompression was performed on six patients (equitably distributed between the two groups), and radiosurgery was administered to three patients in Group 1.

Feb 24, 2024

Paper page — ToDo: Token Downsampling for Efficient Generation of High-Resolution Images

Posted by in category: futurism

ToDo.

Token downsampling for efficient generation of high-resolution images.


Join the discussion on this paper page.

Feb 24, 2024

Microscopic robots could soon float inside your liver to fight cancer

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, robotics/AI

Canadian researchers are closing in on a novel approach to treat liver tumours using microrobots in a MRI device.

Feb 24, 2024

Legendary shipwreck’s treasure of “incalculable value” will be recovered by underwater robot, Colombia says

Posted by in categories: economics, government, robotics/AI

Colombia’s government on Friday announced an expedition to remove items of “incalculable value” from the wreck of the legendary San Jose galleon, which sank in 1708 while laden with gold, silver and emeralds estimated to be worth billions of dollars. The 316-year-old wreck, often called the “holy grail” of shipwrecks, has been controversial, because it is both an archaeological and economic treasure.

Culture Minister Juan David Correa told AFP that more than eight years after the discovery of the wreck off Colombia’s coast, an underwater robot would be sent to recover some of its bounty.

Feb 24, 2024

Elon Musk claims Neuralink’s first patient implanted with brain chip can already move a computer mouse with their mind

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, computing, Elon Musk, neuroscience

The maverick entrepreneur, known for embellishing the facts, provided no conclusive evidence as to the veracity of his claim.

Feb 24, 2024

Qubits are notoriously prone to failure — but building them from a single laser pulse may change this

Posted by in category: quantum physics

Qubits are normally made from superconducting metals and need to be cooled to near absolute zero to avoid collapsing. But scientists just built an error-free “logical qubit” from a single laser pulse — and it works at room temperature.

Feb 24, 2024

Infinite Intelligence > Superintelligence

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, life extension, robotics/AI

Superintelligent AI might solve all the world’s problems. It could cure cancer, eliminate human aging, create a world of abundance for all.

Superintelligent AI might also prove completely uncontrollable and destroy humanity, whether intentionally or as mere collateral damage in the path of achieving other goals.

The clashing viewpoints about the potential and dangers of peak AI live at the heart of the battle of techno-optimists and doomsayers, accelerationists vs doomers.

Feb 24, 2024

Breakthrough Pseudo CMOS Transistors for 1000 Times More Efficient Computing

Posted by in categories: computing, materials

Beijing researchers made a pseudo-CMOS architecture for sub-picowatt logic computing that uses self-biased molybdenum disulfide transistors.

As transistors are scaled to smaller dimensions, their static power increases. Combining two-dimensional (2D) channel materials with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) logic architectures could be an effective solution to this issue because of the excellent field-effect properties of 2D materials. However, 2D materials have limited polarity control. The transistors have a gapped channel that forms a tunable barrier—thus circumventing the polarity control of 2D materials—and exhibit a reverse-saturation current below 1 pA with high reliability and endurance.

They use the devices to make homojunction-loaded inverters with good rail-to-rail operation at a switching threshold voltage of around 0.5 V, a static power of a few picowatts, a dynamic delay time of around 200 µs, a noise margin of more than 90% and a peak voltage gain of 241. They also fabricate fundamental gate circuits on the basis of this pseudo-CMOS configuration by cascading several devices.

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