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May 17, 2024

Deep-sea sponge’s ‘zero-energy’ flow control could inspire new energy efficient designs

Posted by in categories: chemistry, computing, engineering, space

Now, new research reveals yet another engineering feat of this ancient animal’s structure: its ability to filter feed using only the faint ambient currents of the ocean depths, no pumping required.

This discovery of natural ‘“zero energy” control by an international research team co-led by University of Rome Tor Vergata and NYU Tandon School of Engineering could help engineers design more efficient chemical reactors, air purification systems, heat exchangers, hydraulic systems, and aerodynamic surfaces.

In a study published in Physical Review Letters, the team found through extremely high-resolution how the skeletal structure of the Venus flower basket sponge (Euplectella aspergillum) diverts very slow deep sea currents to flow upwards into its central body cavity, so it can feed on plankton and other marine detritus it filters out of the water.

May 17, 2024

Tracing the history of perturbative expansion in quantum field theory

Posted by in categories: mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics

Perturbative expansion is a valuable mathematical technique which is widely used to break down descriptions of complex quantum systems into simpler, more manageable parts. Perhaps most importantly, it has enabled the development of quantum field theory (QFT): a theoretical framework that combines principles from classical, quantum, and relativistic physics, and serves as the foundation of the Standard Model of particle physics.

May 17, 2024

Study examines low-permittivity dielectric ceramics for microwave/millimeter-wave communication

Posted by in categories: materials, satellites

Microwave dielectric ceramics are the cornerstone of wireless communication devices, widely utilized in mobile communications, satellite radar, GPS, Bluetooth, and WLAN applications. Components made from these ceramic materials, such as filters, resonators, and dielectric antennas, are extensively used in wireless communication networks.

May 17, 2024

Researchers suppress non-Hermitian effects via ‘fake’ magnetic fields

Posted by in category: futurism

Due to the presence of non-Hermitian components, wave intensities tend to localize at the system boundary, namely the non-Hermitian skin effect. The skin behavior is protected by topology, making it insensitive to minor changes. Nevertheless, it has recently been shown that the non-Hermitian skin effect can be suppressed by real magnetic fields.

Zhang, Xue, and Zhang’s graduate student Hau Tian Teo wondered, “Can a ‘fake’ —pseudomagnetic field—also suppress the non-Hermitian skin effect?” The team then performed on a two-dimensional lattice array to study the topology and movement of the skin behavior.

By switching on the pseudomagnetic field, the team discovered that the skin states can be pushed into the bulk. “This movement from skin to bulk can be precisely traced by a theoretically predicted trajectory,” Teo suggests. In addition to the movement, the suppression is reflected in the reduction of topological number.

May 17, 2024

The neural signature of subjective disgust could apply to both sensory and socio-moral experiences

Posted by in categories: ethics, neuroscience

Disgust is one of the six basic human emotions, along with happiness, sadness, fear, anger, and surprise. Disgust typically arises when a person perceives a sensory stimulus or situation as revolting, off-putting, or unpleasant in other ways.

May 17, 2024

Researchers develop world’s smallest quantum light detector on a silicon chip

Posted by in categories: computing, quantum physics

Researchers at the University of Bristol have made an important breakthrough in scaling quantum technology by integrating the world’s tiniest quantum light detector onto a silicon chip. The paper, “A Bi-CMOS electronic photonic integrated circuit quantum light detector,” was published in Science Advances.

May 17, 2024

Scientists develop new geochemical ‘fingerprint’ to trace contaminants in fertilizer

Posted by in categories: chemistry, food

An international team of scientists has uncovered toxic metals in mineral phosphate fertilizers worldwide by using a new tool to identify the spread and impact of such contaminants on soil, water resources, and food supply.

May 17, 2024

Study reveals how a sugar-sensing protein acts as a ‘machine’ to switch plant growth—and oil production—on and off

Posted by in category: nanotechnology

Proteins are molecular machines, with flexible pieces and moving parts. Understanding how these parts move helps scientists unravel the function a protein plays in living things—and potentially how to change its effects. Biochemists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory and colleagues at DOE’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have published a new example of how one such molecular machine works.

May 17, 2024

Ion irradiation offers promise for 2D material probing

Posted by in category: materials

Two-dimensional materials such as graphene promise to form the basis of incredibly small and fast technologies, but this requires a detailed understanding of their electronic properties. New research demonstrates that fast electronic processes can be probed by irradiating the materials with ions first.

May 17, 2024

A new ‘rule of biology’ may have come to light, expanding insight into evolution and aging

Posted by in categories: biological, evolution, life extension

A molecular biologist at the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences may have found a new “rule of biology.”

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