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Apr 9, 2024

CMS experiment at CERN measures a key parameter of the Standard Model

Posted by in category: particle physics

Last week, at the annual Rencontres de Moriond conference, the CMS collaboration presented a measurement of the effective leptonic electroweak mixing angle. The result is the most precise measurement performed at a hadron collider to date and is in good agreement with the prediction from the Standard Model.

The Standard Model of particle physics is the most precise description to date of particles and their interactions. Precise measurements of its parameters, combined with precise theoretical calculations, yield spectacular predictive power that allows phenomena to be determined even before they are directly observed.

In this way, the model successfully constrained the masses of the W and Z bosons (discovered at CERN in 1983), of the top quark (discovered at Fermilab in 1995) and, most recently, of the Higgs boson (discovered at CERN in 2012). Once these particles had been discovered, these predictions became consistency checks for the model, allowing physicists to explore the limits of the theory’s validity.

Apr 9, 2024

Are the posthumans here yet?

Posted by in category: computing

Would you implant a chip or machine component into your body to make life more convenient? How about to enhance your abilities?

Apr 9, 2024

The Moon’s Origin Story: A Tale of Collision and Reconstruction

Posted by in categories: computing, space

“For the first time we have physical evidence showing us what was happening in the moon’s interior during this critical stage in its evolution, and that’s really exciting,” said Dr. Jeff Andrews-Hanna.

Our Moon has long been hypothesized to have formed from a planet-sized object colliding with the Earth. But, what happened after and how can its unique geologic exterior and interior be explained? This is what a recent study published in Nature Geoscience hopes to address as an international team of researchers led by the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) at the University of Arizona used a combination of spacecraft data and computer models to investigate the geologic processes that led to heavier elements being present on the nearside of the Moon, which is constantly facing Earth due to being tidally locked with our planet. This study holds the potential to help researchers better understand the geologic mechanisms behind planetary formation and could lead to gaining greater insight into how rocky planets like Earth and Mars formed.

For the study, the researchers used data from NASA’s GRAIL mission, which was used to map gravitational anomalies on the Moon, and computer models to determine the distribution of ilmenite, a combination of titanium and iron, across the Moon’s nearside and how much sunk into the Moon’s interior during the Moon’s formation and evolution. It has been previously hypothesized that while ilmenite sunk to the Moon’s interior early on, portions of it returned to the surface from volcanism, and the mechanisms behind these events have led scientists puzzled.

Continue reading “The Moon’s Origin Story: A Tale of Collision and Reconstruction” »

Apr 9, 2024

Could Tardigrades Have Colonized The Moon?

Posted by in categories: life extension, particle physics

First of all, they have to have survived the impact. Laboratory tests have shown that frozen specimens of the Hypsibius dujardini species travelling at 3,000 km/h in a vacuum were fatally damaged when they smashed into sand. However, they survived impacts of 2,600 km/h or less – and their “hard landing” on the Moon, unwanted or not, was far slower.

The Moon’s surface is not protected from solar particles and cosmic rays, particularly gamma rays, but here too, the tardigrades would be able to resist. In fact, Robert Wimmer-Schweingruber, professor at the University of Kiel in Germany, and his team have shown that the doses of gamma rays hitting the lunar surface were permanent but low compared with the doses mentioned above – 10 years’ exposure to Lunar gamma rays would correspond to a total dose of around 1 Gy.

But then there’s the question of “life” on the Moon. The tardigrades would have to withstand a lack of water as well as temperatures ranging from −170 to −190°C during the lunar night and 100 to 120°C during the day. A lunar day or night lasts a long time, just under 15 Earth days. The probe itself wasn’t designed to withstand such extremes and even if it hadn’t crashed, it would have ceased all activity after just a few Earth days.

Apr 9, 2024

Neuroblastoma study identifies new subgroups with distinct prognoses and potential vulnerabilities to therapies

Posted by in category: biotech/medical

Researchers have identified new variations in neuroblastoma that could lead to a more accurate prognosis and better-targeted treatments for this devastating childhood cancer.

Apr 9, 2024

Repotrectinib Shrinks ROS1-Positive NSCLC Tumors

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

For many of these individuals, the response to repotrectinib lasted for several years.

“Repotrectinib can lead to long-term responses for patients with ROS1 fusion–positive lung cancers, including those who have and have not received prior targeted therapy,” said Alexander Drilon, M.D., of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, who led the TRIDENT-1 study.

Treatment with repotrectinib also shrank tumors that had spread to the brain, a common location for lung metastases, the researchers reported.

Apr 9, 2024

Sexual dimorphism in skin immunity is mediated by an androgen-ILC2-dendritic cell axis

Posted by in category: sex

NIAID researchers have found that male mice have weaker immune responses to infection and microbial colonization of the skin than female mice because male sex hormones reduce the density and activation of key immune cells in skin. The findings are published in the journal Science.

Apr 9, 2024

Study reveals mechanism linking heart disease to cancer development

Posted by in category: biotech/medical

Researchers at Tel Aviv University (TAU) and the Leviev Cardiothoracic and Vascular Center at the Sheba Medical Center have found a mechanism responsible for increasing the risk of developing cancer among patients with heart disease: Small extracellular bubbles, or vesicles (sEVs), secreted from the sick heart to heal itself, are released into the bloodstream and promote the growth of cancer cells throughout the body.

Apr 9, 2024

Stuart Hameroff — Can Consciousness be Non-Biological?

Posted by in categories: biological, neuroscience

Register for free to get subscriber-only benefits: consciousness is 100% physical, we would have to conclude that the same kind…

Apr 9, 2024

Scientists hit a 301 Tbps speed over existing fiber networks

Posted by in categories: computing, internet

When I was a kid, I went to a science camp, and one of the instructors showed us a few inches of fiber optic cable. I remember thinking it was so neat that you could light it up at one end, and no matter how you twisted the cable, you could see the light come out on the other end. At the time, I thought how useful it might be to send Morse code through it—I was very young. Things have changed a bit since then. Today, UK Aston University researchers sent data at a 301 terabits per second (Tbps) clip over existing fiber networks.

How fast is that? It’s about 1.2 million times faster than the US’ medium fixed broadband speed of 242.48 megabits per second (Mbps). Or, it’s fast enough to deliver 1,800 4K movies to your home in a second. And I thought my recent home internet fiber upgrade to 2 Gigabits per second (Gbps) was impressive!Of course, no one will get 301 Tbps speeds in their home office. In the real world, I know a handful of people with 10 Gbps connections to their houses and many data centers with 40 Gbps local area networks.

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