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Dec 1, 2023

A Tiny Particle Accelerator Just Achieved a Major Energy Milestone

Posted by in category: particle physics

Particle accelerators are hugely useful in scientific research, but – like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) – usually take up vast amounts of room. A remarkable new system developed at the University of Texas in Austin could change this.

In experiments, researchers were able to use their particle accelerator to generate an electron beam with an energy of 10 billion electron volts (10 GeV) in a chamber measuring just 10 centimeters (4 inches).

The complete instrument measures 20 meters (66 feet) from end to end. In comparison, other particle accelerators that can generate 10 GeV beams are some 3 kilometers (almost 2 miles) in length – about 150 times as long.

Dec 1, 2023

Detroit’s newest road can charge electric cars as they travel on it

Posted by in categories: sustainability, transportation

Detroit is now home to the country’s first stretch of road that can wirelessly charge an electric vehicle (EV), whether it’s parked or moving.

Why it matters: Wireless charging on an electrified roadway could remove one of the biggest hassles of owning an EV: the need to stop and plug in regularly.

Dec 1, 2023

AI Has Achieved Escape Velocity

Posted by in categories: governance, robotics/AI

No governance mechanism can contain it nor stop the progress towards AGI.

Dec 1, 2023

A Neptune-mass exoplanet in close orbit around a very low-mass star challenges formation models

Posted by in category: space

Science 382, 1031–1035 (2023). DOI:10.1126/science.abo0233

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Dec 1, 2023

Massive exoplanet orbiting small star upends planet formation theories

Posted by in category: space

Astronomers have found a massive planet orbiting a small, cool star, and planet formation theories struggle to explain its existence.

Dec 1, 2023

A Google AI has discovered 2.2m materials unknown to science

Posted by in categories: robotics/AI, science

Zillions of possible crystals exist. AI can help catalogue them | Science & technology.

Dec 1, 2023

Quantum Squeeze: MIT Unlocks New Dimensions in Precise Clocks

Posted by in categories: cosmology, finance, particle physics, quantum physics

More stable clocks could measure quantum phenomena, including the presence of dark matter.

The practice of keeping time relies on stable oscillations. In grandfather clocks, the length of a second is marked by a single swing of the pendulum. In digital watches, the vibrations of a quartz crystal mark much smaller fractions of time. And in atomic clocks, the world’s state-of-the-art timekeepers, the oscillations of a laser beam stimulate atoms to vibrate at 9.2 billion times per second. These smallest, most stable divisions of time set the timing for today’s satellite communications, GPS systems, and financial markets.

A clock’s stability depends on the noise in its environment. A slight wind can throw a pendulum’s swing out of sync. And heat can disrupt the oscillations of atoms in an atomic clock. Eliminating such environmental effects can improve a clock’s precision. But only by so much.

Dec 1, 2023

Enhancing supercapacitor performance through design optimization of laser-induced graphene and MWCNT coatings for flexible and portable energy storage

Posted by in categories: energy, nanotechnology, wearables

The field of supercapacitors consistently focuses on research and challenges to improve energy efficiency, capacitance, flexibility, and stability. Low-cost laser-induced graphene (LIG) offers a promising alternative to commercially available graphene for next-generation wearable and portable devices, thanks to its remarkable specific surface area, excellent mechanical flexibility, and exceptional electrical properties. We report on the development of LIG-based flexible supercapacitors with optimized geometries, which demonstrate high capacitance and energy density while maintaining flexibility and stability. Three-dimensional porous graphene films were synthesized, and devices with optimized parameters were fabricated and tested. One type of device utilized LIG, while two other types were fabricated on LIG by coating multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) at varying concentrations.

Dec 1, 2023

Monolithic 3D integration of 2D materials-based electronics towards ultimate edge computing solutions

Posted by in categories: materials, robotics/AI

Monolithic 3D integration of electronics based on fully 2D materials is demonstrated in the performance of artificial intelligence tasks.

Dec 1, 2023

Molecular movie captures DNA repair from start to finish

Posted by in category: biotech/medical

An international team of researchers has used time-resolved ultrafast crystallography to follow the progress of DNA repair by a photolyase enzyme. The work is ‘the first structural characterisation of a full enzyme reaction cycle,’ says Manuel Maestre-Reyna, who led the research.

Photolyases repair DNA damage caused by ultraviolet light in bacteria, fungi, plants and some animals including marsupials. Humans and other mammals don’t contain these enzymes, but we too incur light-induced damage. One common outcome is the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), where two adjacent pyrimidine bases (thymine or cytosine) fuse together via a four-membered cyclobutane ring. ‘CPD formation is the main cause of skin cancer, and sunburnt skin always contains CPD lesions’, says Maestre-Reyna, a biochemist at the Institute of Biological Chemistry in Taipei, Taiwan.

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